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VJ0603A820JXAAP31-VISHAY

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I.74HC164Introduction74HC164adoptsDIP-14,SO-14,SSOP-14andTSSOP-14packagepinconfiguration.ItiscomplementarytoMOS8-bitserialinputandparalleloutputunidirectionalshiftregister,thelogicsymbolisshowninthefigure1.Thepowersupplyvoltageis2~6V.Inthefigure1,AandBaretheserialcodeinputterminals;CLRistheclearinputterminal;CLKistheclockpulseinputterminal.Withthearrivaloftherisingedgeoftheclockpulse,thestateofphaseA,phaseBandthesubsequentphaseshiftsfromQAtoQHinturn.CatalogI.74HC164IntroductionII.74HC164LogicSymbolIII.CircuitDesignIV.HowtoCheckandRepairtheCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityII.74HC164LogicSymbolFigure174HC164LogicSymbolIII.CircuitDesignFigure2isaninstrumentcircuitcomposedofserialinputandparalleloutputdigitalintegratedcircuits.T2-T5,C5andresistancetogetherformaturnsignalflashingoscillationcircuit.WhentheDR(connectedtotheturnswitch)inJ8isdisconnected,thiscircuitwillnotworkandtheturnsignalwillnotflash;whenDRison,theoscillationcircuitstarttowork,theturnsignalstartstoflash.Figure2MetercircuitdiagramDRisathree-positionswitch,onepoleisconnectedtotheleftturnsignal,onepoleisconnectedtotherightturnsignal,onepoleissuspendedintheair,andtheotherendofthepolehitstheground.Theswitch-offcircuitiscomposedofTl,DLRllandR12.Aswitch-typeHallelementisinstalledinthefrontandrearbrakesoftheelectricbicycle.Whentheswitchisswitched,theHallelementoutputsalowpotential,thatis,theBRKterminalintheplugJ2isgrounded,Tlisturnedon,andthereisavoltageofnearly5VonthecollectorofTl.ThisvoltageissenttothecontrollerthroughtheBRKterminalinJ2,andthepowersupplycircuitofthemotoristurnedoff.Themotorstopsworkingandactsasabrake.Onthecontrary,whenthebrakeisnotpinched,theHallelementoutputsahighpotential,Tliscutoff,andthemotorrunsnormally.Because74HC164isan8-bitserialinputandparalleloutputshiftregister,itformsamovementmodeandbatterypowerdisplaycircuitwithlight-emittingdiodes.74HC164soutputpin13,pin11,andD5-D7formthesideofthesportsmodedisplaycircuit,andpins6and10andD8-D12formthebatterypowerdisplaycircuit.Thedisplaysignalfromthecontrollerissenttotheserialinputterminals1and2ofthe74HC164throughtheDATAterminalintheJ2,andthenshiftedbytheinternalcircuit,thedrivingsignalisoutputfromtherelevantoutputterminaltolightupthecorrespondinglight-emittingdiode,soastocompletethecontrolofthedisplaycircuit.IV.HowtoCheckandRepairtheCircuitThiscircuitisrelativelysimpleandeasytorepair.Themainbasisforrepairingistojudgethequalityof74HC164.First,checkwhetherthe+5Vvoltageisnormal,andthencheckwhetherthevoltageatpin③ofthe74HC164sclocksignalinputiscloseto+5V.Ifitislowerthan+5V,andafterdisconnectingR73,theCLKterminalvoltageofJ2isnormal,andthe74HC164isdamaged.IfthevoltageoftheCLKportisabnormal,thefaultisinthecontroller.Next,measurewhetherthevoltageoftheserialinputterminals①and②changesduringthetransitionofthemotionmode.Ifnot,thefaultisinthecontroller;ifthereis,the74HC164isdamaged.Fromtheactualrepairsituation,mostofthe74HC164failuresarecausedbydamagetotheinternalcircuitofthe⑩pin(powersupplyterminal).Inaddition,whenpurchasing74HC164,youcanfirstmeasuretheresistanceofthe⑩pin.Theresistancevalueshouldbeabout4kDinthepositivetestandinfiniteinthereversetest.FAQHowdoesthe74HC164transmitdatainthemicrocontrollercircuit?Onepinofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerislikeafaucet,andthedataissentonebyone,thatis,likethewaterfromthefaucet,drippingdropbydrop.The74H164islikeasmallbowlreceivingwater.Itisjustfullafterreceiving8dropsofwater.Atthistime,itissenttothedigitaltube.Thesingle-chipmicrocomputermustsendan8-bit(ormore)data,ifitissentatthesametime,itisaparalleltransmission,ifitisabitbybit,itisaserialtransmission.Thedataofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerissenttothe74HC164bitbybit,whichisserial,andthe74HC164sendsthedatatothedigitaltubeatonce,whichisparallel.So74HC164playsarolefromserialtransmissiontoparalleltransmission.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164Dand74HC164NMCU?TheDin74HC164Drepresentsachippackage.TheNin74HC164Nmeansdualin-lineplasticpackaging.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164and74LS164,cantheybeusedtogether?74ls164isaTTLcircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis5V,thehigh-leveloutputcurrentIohis-0.4MA,andthelow-leveloutputcurrentis8MA.74HC164isaCMOScircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis2V~6V,theoutputdrivecurrentcanreachplusorminus20MA.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageyouuseis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissuitablefor74ls164,theycanbeusedtogether.Whatdevicescan74hc164bereplacedwith?74HC164isaCMOSdevicewithapowersupplyvoltageof2V-6V.Itcanbedirectlyreplacedby74HCT164,40H164.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissmall,itcanalsobereplacedby74164,74LS164,74F164,74ALS164.Whichof74LS164and74HC164hashigherdrivingcapability?74LS164isaTTLdevicewithahigh-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout0.4mAandalow-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout8mA.74HC164isaCMOSdevice,withhigh-levelandlow-leveldrivecapabilityupto20mA.TheabovedatacomesfromDATASHEET.Butgenerallyspeaking,thehigh-leveloutputcapabilityofmanyCMOSdevicesisweak,smallerthanTTL,andthelow-leveldrivecapabilityisstronger.Can74hc164nbeusedtodrivethedigitaltube?Ofcourse,youcanusethe164chiptodrivethenixietube,whichismostlyusedinsituationswheretheIOportresourcesaretightandthedisplaydatarefreshofthenixietubeisslow.Whendesigningthecircuit,multiple164chipsareusedincascade,nomatterhowmanydigitaltubesaredriven,only2IOportsofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerareoccupied.ItcanbesaidthatitisthemostIOport-savingdrivingmethod,anditisstilldrivenstatically,withoutstrobeandbrightnessLowphenomenon.Thedisadvantageisthatmultiple164sareusedincascadeconnection,whichwillcausethesingle-chipmicrocomputertosendalargeamountofdisplaydata(1bytepernixietube)atonetimewhenrefreshingthedisplaydata.Duringthisprocess,thenixietubewillbeallon,althoughthedataissentTheprocessdurationisveryshort,butitstillaffectsthedisplayeffect.Itisrecommendedtoturnoffthedigitaltubewhenrefreshingthedata.

I.74HC164Introduction74HC164adoptsDIP-14,SO-14,SSOP-14andTSSOP-14packagepinconfiguration.ItiscomplementarytoMOS8-bitserialinputandparalleloutputunidirectionalshiftregister,thelogicsymbolisshowninthefigure1.Thepowersupplyvoltageis2~6V.Inthefigure1,AandBaretheserialcodeinputterminals;CLRistheclearinputterminal;CLKistheclockpulseinputterminal.Withthearrivaloftherisingedgeoftheclockpulse,thestateofphaseA,phaseBandthesubsequentphaseshiftsfromQAtoQHinturn.CatalogI.74HC164IntroductionII.74HC164LogicSymbolIII.CircuitDesignIV.HowtoCheckandRepairtheCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityII.74HC164LogicSymbolFigure174HC164LogicSymbolIII.CircuitDesignFigure2isaninstrumentcircuitcomposedofserialinputandparalleloutputdigitalintegratedcircuits.T2-T5,C5andresistancetogetherformaturnsignalflashingoscillationcircuit.WhentheDR(connectedtotheturnswitch)inJ8isdisconnected,thiscircuitwillnotworkandtheturnsignalwillnotflash;whenDRison,theoscillationcircuitstarttowork,theturnsignalstartstoflash.Figure2MetercircuitdiagramDRisathree-positionswitch,onepoleisconnectedtotheleftturnsignal,onepoleisconnectedtotherightturnsignal,onepoleissuspendedintheair,andtheotherendofthepolehitstheground.Theswitch-offcircuitiscomposedofTl,DLRllandR12.Aswitch-typeHallelementisinstalledinthefrontandrearbrakesoftheelectricbicycle.Whentheswitchisswitched,theHallelementoutputsalowpotential,thatis,theBRKterminalintheplugJ2isgrounded,Tlisturnedon,andthereisavoltageofnearly5VonthecollectorofTl.ThisvoltageissenttothecontrollerthroughtheBRKterminalinJ2,andthepowersupplycircuitofthemotoristurnedoff.Themotorstopsworkingandactsasabrake.Onthecontrary,whenthebrakeisnotpinched,theHallelementoutputsahighpotential,Tliscutoff,andthemotorrunsnormally.Because74HC164isan8-bitserialinputandparalleloutputshiftregister,itformsamovementmodeandbatterypowerdisplaycircuitwithlight-emittingdiodes.74HC164soutputpin13,pin11,andD5-D7formthesideofthesportsmodedisplaycircuit,andpins6and10andD8-D12formthebatterypowerdisplaycircuit.Thedisplaysignalfromthecontrollerissenttotheserialinputterminals1and2ofthe74HC164throughtheDATAterminalintheJ2,andthenshiftedbytheinternalcircuit,thedrivingsignalisoutputfromtherelevantoutputterminaltolightupthecorrespondinglight-emittingdiode,soastocompletethecontrolofthedisplaycircuit.IV.HowtoCheckandRepairtheCircuitThiscircuitisrelativelysimpleandeasytorepair.Themainbasisforrepairingistojudgethequalityof74HC164.First,checkwhetherthe+5Vvoltageisnormal,andthencheckwhetherthevoltageatpin③ofthe74HC164sclocksignalinputiscloseto+5V.Ifitislowerthan+5V,andafterdisconnectingR73,theCLKterminalvoltageofJ2isnormal,andthe74HC164isdamaged.IfthevoltageoftheCLKportisabnormal,thefaultisinthecontroller.Next,measurewhetherthevoltageoftheserialinputterminals①and②changesduringthetransitionofthemotionmode.Ifnot,thefaultisinthecontroller;ifthereis,the74HC164isdamaged.Fromtheactualrepairsituation,mostofthe74HC164failuresarecausedbydamagetotheinternalcircuitofthe⑩pin(powersupplyterminal).Inaddition,whenpurchasing74HC164,youcanfirstmeasuretheresistanceofthe⑩pin.Theresistancevalueshouldbeabout4kDinthepositivetestandinfiniteinthereversetest.FAQHowdoesthe74HC164transmitdatainthemicrocontrollercircuit?Onepinofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerislikeafaucet,andthedataissentonebyone,thatis,likethewaterfromthefaucet,drippingdropbydrop.The74H164islikeasmallbowlreceivingwater.Itisjustfullafterreceiving8dropsofwater.Atthistime,itissenttothedigitaltube.Thesingle-chipmicrocomputermustsendan8-bit(ormore)data,ifitissentatthesametime,itisaparalleltransmission,ifitisabitbybit,itisaserialtransmission.Thedataofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerissenttothe74HC164bitbybit,whichisserial,andthe74HC164sendsthedatatothedigitaltubeatonce,whichisparallel.So74HC164playsarolefromserialtransmissiontoparalleltransmission.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164Dand74HC164NMCU?TheDin74HC164Drepresentsachippackage.TheNin74HC164Nmeansdualin-lineplasticpackaging.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164and74LS164,cantheybeusedtogether?74ls164isaTTLcircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis5V,thehigh-leveloutputcurrentIohis-0.4MA,andthelow-leveloutputcurrentis8MA.74HC164isaCMOScircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis2V~6V,theoutputdrivecurrentcanreachplusorminus20MA.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageyouuseis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissuitablefor74ls164,theycanbeusedtogether.Whatdevicescan74hc164bereplacedwith?74HC164isaCMOSdevicewithapowersupplyvoltageof2V-6V.Itcanbedirectlyreplacedby74HCT164,40H164.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissmall,itcanalsobereplacedby74164,74LS164,74F164,74ALS164.Whichof74LS164and74HC164hashigherdrivingcapability?74LS164isaTTLdevicewithahigh-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout0.4mAandalow-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout8mA.74HC164isaCMOSdevice,withhigh-levelandlow-leveldrivecapabilityupto20mA.TheabovedatacomesfromDATASHEET.Butgenerallyspeaking,thehigh-leveloutputcapabilityofmanyCMOSdevicesisweak,smallerthanTTL,andthelow-leveldrivecapabilityisstronger.Can74hc164nbeusedtodrivethedigitaltube?Ofcourse,youcanusethe164chiptodrivethenixietube,whichismostlyusedinsituationswheretheIOportresourcesaretightandthedisplaydatarefreshofthenixietubeisslow.Whendesigningthecircuit,multiple164chipsareusedincascade,nomatterhowmanydigitaltubesaredriven,only2IOportsofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerareoccupied.ItcanbesaidthatitisthemostIOport-savingdrivingmethod,anditisstilldrivenstatically,withoutstrobeandbrightnessLowphenomenon.Thedisadvantageisthatmultiple164sareusedincascadeconnection,whichwillcausethesingle-chipmicrocomputertosendalargeamountofdisplaydata(1bytepernixietube)atonetimewhenrefreshingthedisplaydata.Duringthisprocess,thenixietubewillbeallon,althoughthedataissentTheprocessdurationisveryshort,butitstillaffectsthedisplayeffect.Itisrecommendedtoturnoffthedigitaltubewhenrefreshingthedata.

IntroductionTheLM2576seriesofmonolithicintegratedcircuitsprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator.LM2576seriesarecapableofdrivinga3Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Theregulatorsaresimpletousebecausetheyrequireaminimumnumberofexternalcomponentsandincludeinternalfrequencycompensationandafixed-frequencyoscillator.CatalogIntroductionCatalogIVoltageStabilizingCircuitIIBuckCircuitIIICurrentBoostCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityIVoltageStabilizingCircuitThebasicvoltagestabilizingcircuitcomposedofLM2576onlyneedsfourperipheraldevices,anditscircuitisshowninFigure1.TheselectionofinductanceL1dependsontheoutputvoltage,maximuminputvoltageandmaximumloadcurrentofLM2576.First,theeletricvoltagemicrosecondconstant(ET)canbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:ET=(Vin-Vout)TImes;Vout/VinTImes;1000/f(1)VinisthemaximuminputvoltageofLM2576;VoutistheoutputvoltageofLM2576;fistheoperatingoscillationfrequencyvalueofLM2576(52khz).Figure1.VoltageStabilizingCircuitGenerally,theinputcapacitanceCininthecircuitshouldbegreaterthanorequalto100F.wheninstalling,itisrequiredtobeclosetotheinputpinoflm2576asfaraspossible,anditswithstandvoltagevalueshouldmatchthemaximuminputvoltagevalue.ThevalueoftheoutputcapacitorCout(unitF)shouldbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:C13300Vin/VoutTImes;L(2)VinisthemaximuminputvoltageofLM2576;VoutistheoutputvoltageofLM2576;L(unitH)isthevalueofinductanceL1.ThewithstandvoltagevalueofcapacitorCshouldbe1.5~2timesofratedoutputvoltage.For5Vvoltageoutput,itisrecommendedtousecapacitorwithvoltagewithstandvalueof16V.TheratedcurrentofdiodeD1shouldbe1.2timesofthemaximumloadcurrent.Consideringthestateofshortcircuitandload,theratedcurrentofthediodeshouldbegreaterthanthemaximumcurrentlimitofLM2576.Thereversevoltageofthediodeshouldbegreaterthan1.25timesofthemaximuminputvoltage.TheselectionofVinshouldconsidertheinputvoltagevalueofLM2576correspondingtothelowestACvoltagedrop(Vac-min)andtheminimuminputallowablevoltagevalueVminofLM2576.Therefore,Vincanbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:Vin(220Vmin/Vac-min)IftheminimumallowableACvoltagedropis30%(Vac-min=154V)andthevoltageoutputoftheLM2576is5V(Vmin=8V),whenVac=220V,theinputDCvoltageoftheLM2576shouldbegreaterthan11.5V,usually12V.IIBuckCircuitThebuckcircuitcomposedofLM2576isshowninFigure2.TheoutputvoltageisdividedandsampledbyR1andR2,andthensenttothepositiveinputendofthesubtractor.ThenegativeterminalisconnectedtoVSET.TheVSETsignalisthevoltagesignalgivenbythemicrocontroller.TheerrorsignalisobtainedbytheoutputsamplevoltagesubtractingtheD/Aconversionvoltage.Thenaddtheerrorsignaltothereferencevoltage(VREF)1.23V,andsendthisresulttothefeedbackterminalofLM2576.Figure2.BuckCircuitComparedwithtraditionaldirectfeedback,thefeedbackloopinthisdesignismorecomplicated.Thisdesignismainlyduetothefollowingconsiderations:First,itiseasytocontrolsinglechipmicrocomputer.AslongastheoutputvoltageofD/Aconversionischanged,thefeedbackloopworks,andtheoutputsamplingvoltageisautomaticallyapproachedtotheD/Aconversionvoltage.Thenthevoltageadjustmentprocesscomplete.Second,itcanmeetthedesignrequirementsofzerovoltageoutput.IfsimplyusethefeedbackpinoftheLM2576,theminimumoutputofthereferencecircuitgiveninthemanualcanonlyreach1.25V,soyouneedtoshiftthefeedbackvoltagetoaVREFreferencevoltagelevel.ThevoltagedividedbythefeedbackresistorisalsosenttotheDACofthemicrocontroller.IIICurrentBoostCircuit(a)Fixedoutputtype;(b)adjustableoutputtypeFigure3.CurrentBoostCircuitFAQWhereisLM2576used?LM2576isusuallyusedasavoltagestabilizingdevicewhentheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceislargeandtheoutputcurrentisalsolarge.Becauseitisaswitchingregulator,ithasahigherconversionefficiencyandlowheatgenerationthanalinearregulator.WhatsthedifferencebetweenLM2576T-ADJandLM2576S-ADJ?LM2576T-ADJisthepackageofTO-220,LM2576S-ADJisthepackageofTO-263-5,thereisnodifferenceintheirfunctions.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM2940andLM2576?Whichcircuitaretheyapplicableto?LM2940isalow-dropoutlinearstabilizedintegratedcircuit.Thelinearstabilizedpowersupplyischaracterizedbyarelativelysimplecircuit,highprecision,andsmallripplecoefficient.Itissuitableforprecisionpowersupplieswithhighvoltagerequirements.ThedisadvantageisthattheefficiencyisverylowandtheoutputThecurrentisrelativelysmall(relativetotheswitchingpowersupply)LM2576isaswitchingpowersupplyintegratedcircuit.Switchingpowersupply,thecircuitismorecomplicated,buttheoutputcurrentislarge,theefficiencyishigh,thedisadvantageisthattheaccuracyislowerandtheripplecoefficientislarger.WhydoswitchingpowersupplychipsLM2576andLM2596havediodes,inductorsandcapacitorsbehindtheoutputpins?ThefunctionofthediodeandtheinductanceisthattheoutputcurrentcanbecontinuouswhentheLM25XXisintheoffstate,andthefunctionofthecapacitoristopreventtheoutputvoltagefromsuddenchangeswhentheLM25XXisturnedonandoff.Infact,itisfiltering.WhythehighertheswitchingfrequencyofLM2576andLM2596,thesmallertheoutputinductanceandcapacitancevalue?Quitesimply,thecapacitivereactanceofacapacitordecreasesasthefrequencyincreases,andtheinductanceofaninductorincreasesasthefrequencyincreases.Thatistosay,theeffectofusinganinductanceof33uHinthecaseof150Khzisbasicallythesameastheeffectofusinganinductanceof100uHinthecaseof52khz,andtheprincipleofcapacitanceisthesame.LM2596isanupgradedversionofLM2576.ButLM2576alsohastheadvantageoflessswitchinglossandlessinterference.IntrodcutionTheCD4066isaquadbilateralswitchwhichcanbeappliedforswitchingofanalogsignalsanddigitalsignals.Itispin-for-pincompatiblewiththeCD4016Bdevice,butexhibitsamuchloweron-stateresistance.Inaddition,theon-stateresistanceisrelativelyconstantoverthefullsignal-inputrange.TheCD4066deviceconsistsoffourbilateralswitches,eachwithindependentcontrols.Theswitchescanbeswitchedoffindependentlyandcomplementeachother.Thisconfigurationeliminatesthevariationoftheswitch-transistorthresholdvoltagewithinputsignaland,thus,keepstheon-stateresistancelowoverthefulloperating-signalrange.Theadvantagesoversingle-channelswitchesincludepeakinput-signalvoltageswingsequaltothefullsupplyvoltageandmoreconstanton-stateimpedanceovertheinput-signalrange.CatalogIntrodcutionITestCircuitofCD4066IICordlessTelephoneIIISelf-lockingTouchSwitchCircuitIVElectronicSwitchCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityITestCircuitofCD4066ThetestofCD4066quadbilateralswitchismainlytotestthecontrolfunctionandbilateralconductionfunctionofeachswitch.Figure1.TestCircuitofCD4066InFigure1,selectinghighorlowlevel,KIisaSPDTswitchatthecontrolterminal,whichisusedtochangetheonstateoftheanalogswitch.WhentheswitchisturnedtoHtoturnonthehighlevel,thecontrolterminalsofthefourswitchesareathighlevel,andeachswitchshouldbeturnedon.WhentheswitchisturnedtoLlowlevel,thefourswitchesshouldbeturnedoff.K2isadouble-poledouble-throwswitch.ToggletheswitchK2tocontrolthedirectionofthebilateralflowingswitchsignal.ItisindicatedbytwogroupsofredandgreenLED.WhentheswitchK2-1isturnedtoHhighlevel,K2-2isconnectedtoLlowlevel.WhenKIswitchisturnedtohighlevelstate,allswitchesareinforward(reverse)conductionstate.Sothepositivepoleofthepowersupplyisaddedtotheparallelconnectedlight-emittingdiodesLFD1,LED3,IED5,positivepoleofLED7andthestep-downresistorR.ThenthefourredLEDslightup.WhentheKlswitchisturnedtoLlowlevel,eachanalogswitchisinthecut-offstate.NomatterK2isswitchedtoHorLstate,thetwogroupsofredandgreenLEDwillnotlightup.IICordlessTelephoneCD4066isaquadbilateralswitch,whichiswidelyusedinTV,DVDplayer,telephone,variouselectronicinstrumentsandmeters.TheCD4066deviceconsistsoffourbilateralswitches,eachwithindependentcontrols.Theswitchescanbeswitchedoffindependentlyandcomplementeachother.ThetypicalapplicationcircuitofCD4066incordlesstelephoneisshowninthefigure.Figure2.CircuitofCordlessTelephoneIIISelf-lockingTouchSwitchCircuitIntheself-lockingtouchswitchcircuitcomposedofCD4066b,whenthetouchswitchS1isactivated,R4isdriventohighlevel,andthecontrolvoltagebecomeshigh,whichwilllatchtheswitch.WhenS2isactivated,R4becomeslowandthecontrolvoltagebecomeslow,whichwilldeactivatetheswitch.Figure3.Self-lockingTouchSwitchCircuitIVElectronicSwitchCircuitElectronicswitchcircuitcomposedofCD4017andCD4066isshownbelow.Figure4.ElectronicSwitchCircuitFAQWhatisCD4066?TheCD4066isaQuadBilateralSwitchIC,thatis,ithasfourswitcheswhichcanbecontrolledindividualusingacontrolpin.Theseswitchescanconductinboththedirectionsmakingitbilateral,itiscommonlyusedformultiplexinganalogordigitalsignals.HowtouseCD4066?TheCD4066ICconsistsoffourswitches.Itcanswitchanalogsignalsthroughdigitalcontrol.Ananalogsignalisappliedattheinputoftheswitch.IfaHIGHor1valueisfedintothecontrolinput,theanalogsignalwillbepassedfrominputtotheoutputofaswitch.HowCD4066work?The4066reallyfunctionsasananalogswitch.The4066isanICcomposedofswitcheswhicharedesignedtoswitchanalogsignalsviadigitalcontrol....The4066isaquadbilateralswitchcircuit,meaningthatiscomposedof4switches.Eachswitchhasasingleinputandasingleoutputterminal.WhataretheapplicationsofCD4066?TheCD4066isabi-directionalanalogswitchingICsimilartoCD4016,itiscommonlyusedinmultiplexingapplications;itcanalsobeusedtoisolatesignals.Theswitchisbilateralandhencecanbeusedforbothdigitalandanalogsignals.WhatsthedifferencebetweenCD4016andCD4066?ThemajordifferencebetweenbothisthatCD4066hasverylowinternalresistance,accordingtothedatasheetitcanonly5ofon-stateresistanceascomparedwith200ofCD4016IC.

VJ0603A820JXAAP31-VISHAY

IntroductionTheCD4066isaquadbilateralswitchwhichcanbeappliedforswitchingofanalogsignalsanddigitalsignals.Itconsistsoffourindependentanalogswitches,eachwiththreeterminals:input,outputandcontrol.Whenthecontrolterminalisappliedwithhighpowerlevel,theswitchison.Whenthecontrolterminalisaddedwithlowpowerlevel,theswitchisclosed.Theinputterminalandoutputterminalcanbeusedinterchangeably.Thisconfigurationeliminatesthevariationoftheswitch-transistorthresholdvoltagewithinputsignaland,thus,keepstheon-stateresistancelowoverthefulloperating-signalrange.Theadvantagesoversingle-channelswitchesincludepeakinput-signalvoltageswingsequaltothefullsupplyvoltageandmoreconstanton-stateimpedanceovertheinput-signalrange.ThisarticleintroducestwoapplicationexamplesofCD4066analogswitch.CatalogIntroductionCatalogITrack-and-HoldCircuitofSignalIIInterchangingDisplayCircuitofFourWaysofElectronicSignalFAQOrdering&QuantityITrack-and-HoldCircuitofSignalFigure1.Track-and-HoldCircuitofSignalTheanalogsignalUiisfromthein-phaseinputoftheoperationalamplifier.Whenthecontrolterminaloftheanalogswitchisathighlevel,theanalogswitchison,andthecapacitorCischargedtoUi.Thisprocessiscalledthesamplingoftheinputsignal.Whenthesamplingisover,thecontrolterminaloftheanalogswitchislowlevelandtheanalogswitchisoff.Becausetheresistanceisashighas100Mwhentheanalogswitchisoff,andtheinputimpedanceofoperationalamplifierA2isalsoveryhigh,thesamplingsignalcanbemaintainedonthecapacitorC.IIInterchangingDisplayCircuitofFourWaysofElectronicSignalAgeneralsinglelineoscilloscopecanonlydisplayonecontinuoussignal.Butthisdevicecandisplayfourcontinuoussignalssimultaneouslyinasinglelineoscilloscope.Itisveryconvenienttocomparethetimerelationofdifferentsignals.Figure2.InterchangingDisplayCircuitofFourWaysofElectronicSignalFigure2isthecircuitdiagramofthedevice.ItusesaCD4017counterandoscillatortoformafour-beatcircuittocontrolthefouranalogswitchesintwoCD4066.AdjustableDClevelandoneinputsignalareaddedrespectivelyoneachpairofanalogswitches.Whenthecontrolendoftheanalogswitchishighlevel1,theanalogswitchison.TheDClevelandinputsignalaresenttothey-axisinputendoftheoscilloscope.BecausethefoursignalscorrespondtodifferentDClevels,thefoursignalsdisplayseparatelyontheoscilloscope.AlthoughthefourpairsofanalogswitchesarecontrolledbythecountersQ0,Q1,Q2,Q3outputterminal,theflickerofthewaveformissmallduetothehighoscillationfrequencyoftheoscillator.FAQWhatisCD4066?TheCD4066isaQuadBilateralSwitchIC,thatis,ithasfourswitcheswhichcanbecontrolledindividualusingacontrolpin.Theseswitchescanconductinboththedirectionsmakingitbilateral,itiscommonlyusedformultiplexinganalogordigitalsignals.HowtouseCD4066?TheCD4066ICconsistsoffourswitches.Itcanswitchanalogsignalsthroughdigitalcontrol.Ananalogsignalisappliedattheinputoftheswitch.IfaHIGHor1valueisfedintothecontrolinput,theanalogsignalwillbepassedfrominputtotheoutputofaswitch.HowCD4066work?The4066reallyfunctionsasananalogswitch.The4066isanICcomposedofswitcheswhicharedesignedtoswitchanalogsignalsviadigitalcontrol....The4066isaquadbilateralswitchcircuit,meaningthatiscomposedof4switches.Eachswitchhasasingleinputandasingleoutputterminal.WhataretheapplicationsofCD4066?TheCD4066isabi-directionalanalogswitchingICsimilartoCD4016,itiscommonlyusedinmultiplexingapplications;itcanalsobeusedtoisolatesignals.Theswitchisbilateralandhencecanbeusedforbothdigitalandanalogsignals.WhatsthedifferencebetweenCD4016andCD4066 ?ThemajordifferencebetweenbothisthatCD4066hasverylowinternalresistance,accordingtothedatasheetitcanonly5ofon-stateresistanceascomparedwith200ofCD4016IC.IDescriptionIndailylife,calendarclocksareusedinvariousplaces.Suchasshoppingmalls,supermarkets,offices,homes,schools,etc.Comparedwiththetraditionalmechanicalclock,thedigitalcalendarclockhasaseriesofadvantages.Suchashighprecision,intuitivedisplay,andlonglife.ThisblogintroducesacalendarclockdesignedwithaDS1302rtcchip.DS1302RTCwithArduinoTutorialCatalogIDescriptionIISystemHardwareDesign2.1OverallStructure2.2DS1302ClockModule2.3LCD1602LCDModuleIIISystemSoftwareDesign3.1DesignofDS1302ClockSubprogram3.2LCD1602LiquidCrystalDisplaySubprogramDesignIVConclusionFAQOrdering&QuantityIISystemHardwareDesign2.1OverallStructureTakeAT89C51single-chipmicrocomputerasthemaincontroller,anduseDS1302clockchiptodesigncalendarclock.ItsoverallstructureisshowninFigure1.Figure1.OverallStructureofSystemThedesignedcalendarclockmustnotonlydisplayhours,minutesandseconds,butalsodisplayyears,months,daysandweeks.ThecoreofthesystemistheAT89C51microcontroller.Throughthesingle-chipcomputercontrolDS1302displaycalendarandtime.AndtheoutputresultisdisplayedonLCD1602liquidcrystalscreen.2.2DS1302ClockModuleTheDS1302clockchiphasthecharacteristicsoflowpowerconsumptionandhighperformance.Itcancommunicatewiththemicrocontrollerthroughasimplesynchronousserialmode,andonlyrequiresthreeI/Olines.Namelyreset(RST),I/Odatalineandserialclock(SCLK)2.2.1DS1302PinsandStructureFigure2showstheexternalpinsandfunctionsofDS1302.Figure2.DS1302PinoutVCC2-mainpowersupplypin;X1,X2-32.768kHzcrystaloscillatorpin;GND-ground;VCC1-batterypin;SCLK-serialclock;I/O-datainput/output;RST-reset.TheinternalstructureofDS1302isshowninFigure3,whichismainlycomposedofthefollowingparts:real-timeclock,datamemoryRAM,oscillatorcircuitandfrequencydivider,inputshiftregister,commandandcontrollogicandsoon.2.2.2DS1302RegistersandcontrolcommandsTheDS1302clockchiphas7registersrelatedtothecalendarclock,asshowninTable1.ThecommunicationsignalbetweenDS1302andsingle-chipmicrocomputerisrealizedthroughsimplesynchronousserialcommunication.AccordingtotheworkingtimingrequirementsofDS1302,whetherthesingle-chipmicrocomputerperformsreadoperationcommunicationfromDS1302orthesingle-chipcomputerperformswriteoperationcommunicationtoDS1302,eachcommunicationisinitiatedbythesingle-chipcomputerfirst.Inotherwords,beforeexecutingthecorrespondingreadorwriteoperation,themicrocontrollermustwriteabyteofcommandwordtoDS1302.Theeight-bitdataofthebytecommandwordisshowninFigure4.Figure4.CommandwordstructureofDS13022.3LCD1602LCDModuleTheLCD1602screencandisplaytwolinesofcharacters,16charactersperline,foratotalof32characters.Thereisan80*8-bitdisplaydatamemoryDDRAMbufferinLCD1602.SeeTable2forthecorrespondencebetweencharacterdisplaybitsandDDRAMaddress.TheaddressonthefirstlineofDDRAMstartsat00Handendsat27H.Theaddressesonthesecondlinestartat40Handendat67H,with40addressesperline.AndLCD1602displays16charactersperline.Therefore,whenwritingaprogram,selectthefirst16addressesofDDRAM.Itisimportanttonotethatthesecondlineaddressstartsfrom40H.IfyouwanttodisplayacharacterinacertainrowandcertaincolumnoftheLCD1602screen,writetheASCIIcodecorrespondingtothischaracterintothecorrespondingDDRAMaddressofacertainrowandcertaincolumn.Atthistime,youwillfindthatthecharactercannotbedisplayednormallyontheLCDscreen.Thereasonisthat80Hmustbeaddedtotheaddress.Forexample,todisplaythesymbolVinthesecondrowandsecondcolumnofthevoltageunitvolts,firstadd80HtothecorrespondingDDRAMaddress41Hinthesecondrowandsecondcolumn,thatis,C1H.ThenwritetheASCIIcode0x56correspondingtotheVcharacterintheC1Haddress.Onlythencanitbedisplayednormally.Thedisplayofothercharacterscanbededucedbyanalogyandwillnotberepeatedhere.IIISystemSoftwareDesignThesoftwareprogrammainlycompletesthefunctionsofdatareading,conversionandliquidcrystaldisplayofthecalendarclock.3.1DesignofDS1302ClockSubprogramsbitRST=P1^0;//DS1302resetportisdefinedinP1.0pinsbitSCLK=P1^1;//TheDS1302clockoutputportisdefinedontheP1.1pinsbitDATA=P1^2;//TheDS1302dataoutputportisdefinedontheP1.2pin(1)Theprogramthatthesingle-chipmicrocomputerwritesabyteofdatatoDS1302voidwright1302(unsignedchardate){Unsigneedchari;SCLK=0;//BepreparedfortherisingedgetowritedataDelaynus(2);for(i=0;i8;i++)//Writeeight-bitdatacontinuously{DATA=date0x01;//Writethebit0dataofdateintoDS1302Delaynus(2);SCLK=1;//WritedataonrisingedgeDelaynus(2);SCLK=0;//date=1;//moveoneplacetotheright}}(2)Theprogramforthesingle-chipmicrocomputertoreadabyteofdatafromDS1302unsignedcharreadd1302(void){Unsignedchari,date;Delaynus(2);for(i=0;i8;i++)//Continuouslyreadeight-bitdata{Date=1;//shiftonebittotherightif(DATA==1)//Ifthedatareadoutis1date|=0x80;//Takeout1andwriteitinthehighestbitofdateSCLK=1;//SetSCLKtoahighlevel,readoutforthefallingedgeDelaynus(2);SCLK=0;//PulldownSCLKtoformthefallingedgeofthepulseDelaynus(2);}returndate;//Returnthereaddata}3.2LCD1602LiquidCrystalDisplaySubprogramDesignThedriverprogramofLCD1602LCDscreenisrelativelycomplicatedtocompile,sowemustfigureouttheusageandmeaningofeachoperationinstructionof1602.Mainlyincludethefollowing:DisplaymodesettingDisplayswitchcontrolInputmodecontrolReaddatafromDDRAMWritedatatoDDRAMClearscreen,cursorhomesettingDataaddresspointersettingLCDscurrentbusyworksign...Partofthecodedesignisasfollows:voidLcd_initial()//InitializeLCD{E=0;Lcd_writecmd(0x38);//16*2display,5*7dotmatrixMsdelay(1);Lcd_writecmd(0x08);//displayoffMsdelay(2);Lcd_writecmd(0x01);//displayclearscreenMsdelay(2);Lcd_writecmd(0x06);//Setthecursor,afterreadingandwritingacharacter,thecursorincreasesby1Msdelay(1);Lcd_writecmd(0x0c);//displayison,nocursorisdisplayedMsdelay(1);}Figure5.HardwarepowersupplydiagramofDS1302calendarclockIntheMedwinV3.0developmentenvironment,useC51languagetocompilethesystemprogram,compileanddebug.AndloadtheHEXhexadecimalfilegeneratedbycompilingintotheMCUchip.StartthesimulationandyoucanseethesimulationrunningeffectoftheDS1302calendarclockdesignsystembasedon1602LCDdisplay.Forexample,thecurrenttimeis11:42:25onMay28,2019,andthesimulationresultisshowninFigure6.Figure6.SimulationresultsofcalendarclockItcanbeseenfromFigure6thatthecurrentdateandtimecanbedisplayedontheLCDscreeninrealtimeandaccurately.IVConclusionCalendarclocksareeverywhereinourlives.ThistexttakesAT89C51single-chipmicrocomputerasthemaincontroller,andusesDS1302real-timeclockchiptodesignthecalendarclocksystem.Inaddition,thehardwarecircuitwasdesignedintheProteussimulationsoftware,andthecorrespondingC51programwaswrittenintheMedwinV3.0developmentenvironment.Thejointuseofthesetwosoftwares,ProteusandMedWinV3.0,greatlyimprovestheefficiencyofsingle-chipsystemdesign,reducescosts,andshortensthedevelopmentcycle.FAQWhatisDS1302?DS1302isatickle-chargetimekeepingchipwhichcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.DS1302usesserialcommunicationtointeractwithmicrocontrollers.Also,itautomaticallyadjustthedateforthemonthwithfewerdays.WhatdoesanRTCdo?Areal-timeclock(RTC)isacomputerclock(mostoftenintheformofanintegratedcircuit)thatkeepstrackofthecurrenttime.Althoughthetermoftenreferstothedevicesinpersonalcomputers,serversandembeddedsystems,RTCsarepresentinalmostanyelectronicdevicewhichneedstokeepaccuratetime.HowdoyouuseRTC?WiringItUp.5VisusedtopowertotheRTCchipwhenyouwanttoqueryitforthetime.Ifthereisno5Vsignal,thechipgoestosleepusingthecoincellforbackup.ConnectGNDtocommonpower/dataground.ConnecttheSCLpintotheI2CclockSCLpinonyourArduino....ConnecttheSDApintotheI2CdataSDApinonyourArduino.DescriptionDS1302isalow-powerreal-timeclockchipwithtricklecurrentchargingcapability.Itcantimetheyear,month,day,week,hour,minute,andsecond.ThisVideoIntroducesDS1302ArduinoRealtimeClockCatalogDescriptionDS1302PinoutDS1302DocumentsandMediaDS1302CADModelsDS1302ParametersDS1302FeaturesDS1302AdvantageDS1302ApplicationsDS1302TypicalOperatingCircuitDS1302EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsDS1302BlockDiagramHowtoUseDS1302DS1302RTCModuleDS1302CommandByteFAQOrdering&QuantityDS1302PinoutThefigurebelowshowsthepinarrangementofDS1302.Amongthem,Vcc2isthemainpowersupply,andVCC1isthebackuppowersupply.Thecontinuousoperationoftheclockcanbemaintainedevenwhenthemainpowerisoff.DS1302ispoweredbythelargerofVcc1orVcc2.WhenVcc2isgreaterthanVcc1+0.2V,Vcc2suppliespowertoDS1302.WhenVcc2islessthanVcc1,DS1302ispoweredbyVcc1.X1andX2aretheoscillationsourcesandanexternal32.768kHzcrystaloscillator.RSTisthereset/chipselectline.AlldatatransfersarestartedbydrivingtheRSTinputtohigh.RSTinputhastwofunctions:First,RSTturnsonthecontrollogic,allowingtheaddress/commandsequencetobesenttotheshiftregister;second,RSTprovidesamethodtoterminatesingle-byteormulti-bytedatatransmission.WhenRSTishigh,alldatatransfersareinitialized,allowingoperationsonDS1302.IfRSTissettoalowlevelduringthetransfer,thedatatransferwillbeterminatedandtheI/Opinwillbecomehighimpedance.Duringpower-onoperation,RSTmustremainlowbeforeVcc2.0V.OnlywhenSCLKislow,canRSTbesethigh.I/Oisaserialdatainputandoutputterminal(two-way),whichwillbedescribedindetaillater.SCLKistheclockinputterminal.PinNumberPinNameDescription1VCC2PrimaryPower-SupplyPininDualSupplyConfiguration.VCC1isconnectedtoabackupsourcetomaintainthetimeanddateintheabsenceofprimarypower.TheDS1302operatesfromthelargerofVCC1orVCC2.WhenVCC2isgreaterthanVCC1+0.2V,VCC2powerstheDS1302.WhenVCC2islessthanVCC1,VCC1powerstheDS1302.2X1ConnectionsforStandard32.768kHzQuartzCrystal.Theinternaloscillatorisdesignedforoperationwithacrystalhavingaspecifiedloadcapacitanceof6pF.Formoreinformationoncrystalselectionandcrystallayoutconsiderations,refertoApplicationNote58:CrystalConsiderationsforDallasReal-TimeClocks.TheDS1302canalsobedrivenbyanexternal32.768kHzoscillator.Inthisconfiguration,theX1pinisconnectedtotheexternaloscillatorsignalandtheX2pinisfloated.3X24GNDGround5CEInput.CEsignalmustbeassertedhighduringareadorawrite.Thispinhasaninternal40kΩ(typ)pulldownresistortoground.Note:PreviousdatasheetrevisionsreferredtoCEasRST.Thefunctionalityofthepinhasnotchanged.6I/OInput/Push-PullOutput.TheI/Opinisthebidirectionaldatapinforthe3-wireinterface.Thispinhasaninternal40kΩ(typ)pulldownresistortoground.7SCLKInput.SCLKisusedtosynchronizedatamovementontheserialinterface.Thispinhasaninternal40kΩ(typ)pulldownresistortoground.8VCC1Low-PowerOperationinSingleSupplyandBattery-OperatedSystemsandLowPowerBatteryBackup.Insystemsusingthetricklecharger,therechargeableenergysourceisconnectedtothispin.ULrecognizedtoensureagainstreversechargingcurrentwhenusedwithalithiumbattery.DS1302DocumentsandMediaDatasheetsDS1302OtherRelatedDocumentsTipsforWritingBulletproofReal-TimeClockControlCodeMfgApplicationNotesEstimatingSuperCapacitorBackupTimeonTrickle-ChargerReal-TimeClocksSelectingaBackupSourceforReal-TimeClocksOscillatorDesignConsiderationsforLow-CurrentApplicationsStateMachineLogicinBinary-CodedDecimal(BCD)-FormattedReal-TimeClocksEnvironmentalInformationHalogenCertificateRedPhosphorousCertificateMaterialDeclarationDS1302PCNObsolescence/EOLMultDevOBS15/Jul/2015HTMLDatasheetDS1302EDA/CADModelsDS1302bySnapEDADS1302byUltraLibrarianDS1302CADModelsDS1302SymbolDS1302FootprintDS1302ParametersBaseProductNumberDS1302BatteryBackupSwitchingBackupSwitchingCategoryIntegratedCircuits(ICs)Clock/Timing-RealTimeClocksCurrent-Timekeeping(Max)0.3A~1A@2V~5VDateFormatYY-MM-DD-ddFeaturesLeapYear,NVSRAM,Trickle-ChargerFunctionCalendar,Clock,NVTimekeepingRAM,TrickleChargerInterface3-WireSerialManufacturerMaximIntegratedMaximumOperatingTemperature+70CMinimumOperatingTemperature0CMountingStyleThroughHoleOperatingTemperature0C~70CPackageTubePackage/Case8-DIP(0.300,7.62mm)PackagingTubePartStatusObsoleteProductCategoryRealTimeClockRoHSNRTCBusInterfaceSerialRTCMemorySize31BSubcategoryClockTimerICsSupplierDevicePackage8-PDIPSupplyVoltage-Max5.5VSupplyVoltage-Min2VTimeFormatHH:MM:SS(12/24hr)TypeClock/CalendarVoltage-Supply,Battery2V~5.5VDS1302FeaturesCompletelyManagesAllTimekeepingFunctionsoReal-TimeClockCountsSeconds,Minutes,Hours,DateoftheMonth,Month,DayoftheWeek,andYearwithLeap-YearCompensationValidUpto2100o31x8Battery-BackedGeneral-PurposeRAMSimpleSerialPortInterfacestoMostMicrocontrollersoSimple3-WireInterfaceoTTL-Compatible(VCC=5V)oSingle-ByteorMultiple-Byte(BurstMode)DataTransferforReadorWriteofClockorRAMDataLowPowerOperationExtendsBatteryBackupRunTimeo2.0Vto5.5VFullOperationoUsesLessThan300nAat2.0V8-PinDIPand8-PinSOMinimizesRequiredSpaceOptionalIndustrialTemperatureRange:-40Cto+85CSupportsOperationinaWideRangeofApplicationsUnderwritersLaboratories(UL)RecognizedDS1302AdvantageTheDS1302trickle-chargetimekeepingchipcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.Itcommunicateswithamicroprocessorviaasimpleserialinterface.Thereal-timeclock/calendarprovidesseconds,minutes,hours,day,date,month,andyearinformation.Theendofthemonthdateisautomaticallyadjustedformonthswithfewerthan31days,includingcorrectionsforleapyear.Theclockoperatesineitherthe24-houror12-hourformatwithanAM/PMindicator.InterfacingtheDS1302withamicroprocessorissimplifiedbyusingsynchronousserialcommunication.Onlythreewiresarerequiredtocommunicatewiththeclock/RAM:CE,I/O(dataline),andSCLK(serialclock).Datacanbetransferredtoandfromtheclock/RAM1byteatatimeorinaburstofupto31bytes.TheDS1302isdesignedtooperateonverylowpowerandretaindataandclockinformationonlessthan1W.TheDS1302isthesuccessortotheDS1202.InadditiontothebasictimekeepingfunctionsoftheDS1202,theDS1302hastheadditionalfeaturesofdualpowerpinsforprimaryandbackuppowersupplies,programmabletricklechargerforVCC1,andsevenadditionalbytesofscratchpadmemory.DS1302ApplicationsTheapplicationsofDS1302includeincorporateddigitalclocks/timersofvariousmodulesinourreallives.OtherequivalentsICsofRTCare:DS1307,DS3231,DS3232DS1302TypicalOperatingCircuitDS1302EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusRoHSnon-compliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)HowtoUseDS1302AtypicaloperatingcircuitforDS1302isgivenbelow.DS1302havetwopowerinput,oneisfromcellandotherisfromcontroller.Acrystaloscillatorof32.768kHzisusedtogeneraterequiredfrequency.ForinterfacingDataline,ResetPinandSerial-clockpinsofDS1302areconnectedwiththemicro-controller.DS1302BlockDiagramDS1302RTCModuleDS1302isatickle-chargetimekeepingchipwhichcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.DS1302usesserialcommunicationtointeractwithmicrocontrollers.Also,itautomaticallyadjustthedateforthemonthwithfewerdays.Clockoperatesin24hror12hrformatwithanAM/PMindicator.DS1302chipisalsocommonlyusedasDS1302RTCmodulewhichcomeswitha32kHzcrystalandon-boardbatterybackupallinasmallSIPmodulethatiscompatiblewithabreadboard.DS1302moduleareusedbymakerswithArduino,RaspberryPiandotherMicro-controllers.ADS1302RTCmodulepinoutisshowninbelowimage.DS1302CommandByteAcommandbyteinitiateseachdatatransfer.TheMSB(bit7)mustbealogic1.Ifitis0,writestotheDS1302willbedisabled.Bit6specifiesclock/calendardataiflogic0orRAMdataiflogic1.Bits1to5specifythedesignatedregisterstobeinputoroutput,andtheLSB(bit0)specifiesawriteoperation(input)iflogic0orreadoperation(output)iflogic1.ThecommandbyteisalwaysinputstartingwiththeLSB(bit0).DS1302RegisterDS1302has12registers,ofwhich7registersarerelatedtocalendarandclock.ThestoreddatabitsareintheformofBCDcodes.Thecalendar,timeregistersandtheircontrolwordsareshowninTable1.Inaddition,DS1302alsohasyearregister,controlregister,chargingregister,clockburstregister,andRAM-relatedregisters.Theclockburstregistercanreadandwritethecontentsofallregistersexceptthechargingregisterinsequenceatonetime.TheDS1302andRAM-relatedregistersaredividedintotwocategories:OneisasingleRAMunit,with31intotal.Eachunitisconfiguredasan8-bitbyte,anditscommandcontrolwordisC0H~FDH.Amongthem,oddnumbersarereadoperations,andevennumbersarewriteoperations;theothertypeisRAMregistersinburstmode.Inthismode,all31bytesofRAMcanbereadandwrittenatonce,andthecommandcontrolwordsareFEH(write)andFFH(read).FAQWhatisDS1302?DS1302isatickle-chargetimekeepingchipwhichcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.DS1302usesserialcommunicationtointeractwithmicrocontrollers.Also,itautomaticallyadjustthedateforthemonthwithfewerdays.WhatdoesanRTCdo?Areal-timeclock(RTC)isacomputerclock(mostoftenintheformofanintegratedcircuit)thatkeepstrackofthecurrenttime.Althoughthetermoftenreferstothedevicesinpersonalcomputers,serversandembeddedsystems,RTCsarepresentinalmostanyelectronicdevicewhichneedstokeepaccuratetime.HowdoyouuseRTC?WiringItUp.5VisusedtopowertotheRTCchipwhenyouwanttoqueryitforthetime.Ifthereisno5Vsignal,thechipgoestosleepusingthecoincellforbackup.ConnectGNDtocommonpower/dataground.ConnecttheSCLpintotheI2CclockSCLpinonyourArduino....ConnecttheSDApintotheI2CdataSDApinonyourArduino.

VJ0603A820JXAAP31-VISHAY

DescriptionTheTDA2822isadual-channel,single-chippoweramplifierintegratedcircuitdevelopedbyStMICROelectronics.Itiscommonlyusedasanaudioamplifierinportablecassetteplayers,cassetterecorders,andmultimediaactivespeakers.Ithasthecharacteristicsofsimplecircuit,goodsoundquality,widevoltagerangeandsoon.Itcanworkinthecircuitformofstereosoundandbridgeamplification(BTL).HowtoMakeaStereoAmplifierUsingICTDA2822?CatalogDescriptionTDA2822PinoutTDA2822CADModelTDA2822ParameterTDA2822ApplicationsTDA2822FeaturesTDA2822AdvantagesWheretouseTDA2822AmplifierICHowtouseTDA2822AmplifierTDA2822SchematicDiagramTDA2822DocumentsandMediaTDA2822EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsTDA2822CircuitOrdering&QuantityTDA2822PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1,3OutputProvidestheamplifiedAudiooutput5,8InvertingInput(IN-)TheInvertingPinofanamplifierisnormallygrounded6,7Non-InvertingInput(IN+)TheNon-Invertingpinisprovidedwiththeaudiosignal4Vcc-Connectedtothenegativesupplyrail2Vcc+ConnectedtoPositiveSupplyRailTDA2822CADModelTDA2822SymbolTDA2822FootprintTDA2822ParameterAudio-LoadImpedance8OhmsBaseProductNumberTDA2822BrandSTMicroelectronicsCategoryIntegratedCircuits(ICs)Linear-Amplifiers-AudioClassClass-ABDescription/FunctionHeadphone/SpeakerFactoryPackQuantity25Features-Gain39dBHeight4.59mmIb-InputBiasCurrent0.1uAInputTypeSingleLength20mmManufacturer:STMicroelectronicsMaxOutputPowerxChannels@Load3.2Wx1@8Ohm;1.7Wx2@4OhmMaximumOperatingTemperature:+150CMfrSTMicroelectronicsMinimumOperatingTemperature-40CMountingStyleThroughHoleNumberofChannels2ChannelOperatingSupplyCurrent12mAOperatingSupplyVoltage5V,9V,12VOperatingTemperature-40C~150C(TJ)OutputCurrent1500mAOutputPower3.2WOutputSignalTypeDifferential,SingleOutputType1-Channel(Mono)or2-Channel(Stereo)PackageTubePackage/Case16-DIP(0.300,7.62mm)Package/CasePDIP-16PackagingTubePartStatusObsoletePd-PowerDissipation4000mWProductAudioAmplifiersPSRR-PowerSupplyRejectionRatio40dBSeriesTDA2822SubcategoryAudioICsSupplierDevicePackage16-PowerDIPSupplyTypeSingleSupplyVoltageMax15VSupplyVoltageMin3VTHDplusNoise0.2%TypeClassABType1-ChannelMonoor2-ChannelStereoUnitWeight0.057419ozVoltageSupply3V~15VWidth7.1mmTDA2822ApplicationsAMandFMRadioamplifiersPortablemusicplayersLowPowerAudioamplifiersWienbridgeoscillatorPowerAmplifiersAudioboostersTDA2822FeaturesDualAmplifiersinoneDIP-8similarforLM368.Givepowerwattsat1W+1Wat4ohmsspeakers.Itisenough.WearehappyListeninginourcorner.Startvoltagesupplyof1.8Vto15V.Thewidealot.Saveenergywithonly6mA,Min.Thebandwidthexpansionratesat40dB120kHz.CheapandeasytouseTDA2822AdvantagesTDA2822isalowpowerstereoOpAmplifierusedinWalkmanplayersandHearingaids.Itcangive250mWoutput.TDA2822isanidealOpampforlowoutputapplications.Itisagoodchoiceasapreamplifierinstereohighpoweramplifiercircuits.Ithastwoinputsandtwooutputswhichcandeliver250milliwattsoutputpower.TheamplifiercircuitwithintheICiswellsetfornoisefreeoperation.Outputscanbedirectlycoupledtothespeakersthroughthedecouplingcapacitors.WheretouseTDA2822AmplifierICTheTDA2822isaDualAudioAmplifierIC,meaningithastwoOp-Ampsinsideitspackage,andtheyarecommonlyusedforaudioamplificationbecauseoftheirwidebandwidthgain.Thetwooutputscandeliver250milliwattsoutputpower.ThisICcanbeusedinportableaudiosystems,preamplifiers,hearingaidminiradio,headphoneamplifier,etc.SoifyouarelookingforadualpackageOperationalamplifierICwithhigh-gain,andwidebandwidthforaudioamplification,thenthisICmightbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtouseTDA2822AmplifierAnapplicationcircuitfromTDA2822datasheetisgivenbelowTheleftloadisconnectedtooutputpin1oftheICthroughelectrolyticcapacitorC4,andtherightloadisconnectedtooutputpin3throughelectrolyticcapacitorC5.TheInvertingInputPins(5and8)areconnectedtothegroundviaelectrolyticcapacitors.Non-InvertingInputPins(7and6)areconnectedtoinput1andinput2.Pin2isconnectedtoDCsupplyandpin4isconnectedtoground.ElectrolyticcapacitorC3connectedacrossVCCandground,workasafiltercapacitor.TDA2822SchematicDiagramTDA2822DocumentsandMediaDatasheetsTDA2822DesignResourcesDevelopmentToolSelectorHTMLDatasheetTDA2822TDA2822EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusROHS3CompliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)TDA2822CircuitTDA2822TestCircuit(Stereo)TDA2822TestCircuit(Bridge)TDA2822TypicalApplicationinPortablePlayersTDA2822LowCostApplicationinPortablePlayersTDA28223VStereoCassettePlayerwithMototSpeedControlI.Description74LS138isa3-lineto8-linedecoder/demultiplexer.Thechipisdesignedtobeusedinhigh-performancememory-decodingordata-routingapplications,requiringveryshortpropagationdelaytimes.Inhighperformancememorysystemsthesedecoderscanbeusedtominimizetheeffectsofsystemdecoding.Thethreeenablepinsofchip(inwhichTwoactive-lowandoneactive-high)reducetheneedforexternalgatesorinverterswhenexpanding.CatalogI.DescriptionII.DigitalVoltmeterCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityII.DigitalVoltmeterCircuitWeuseAD574andAT89C2051toformahighprecisiondigitalvoltmeter.TheschematicdiagramisshowninFigure1.AD574isa12-bitsuccessivecomparisonA/Dconverterwith12datalinesintotal.P1ofAT89C2051isdirectlyconnectedtothehigh8-bitdatalineofAD574.Thelow4-bitdatalineofAD574isdirectlyconnectedwiththeupperhalf4-bitp1.4-p1.7ofsingle-chipmicrocomputer.Datareadingisbasedonthecontrollineofsinglechipmicrocomputer.P3.5isconnectedtoAD574byteshortperiodcontrolline(A0).P3.4isconnectedtoreadconversiondatacontrolpin.AndP3.7isdirectlyconnectedwiththeterminalofindicatingworkingstatus(STS).Suchstructuredeterminesthatitcanonlybe8-bitoutput,sothedatamodeselectionendcanbedirectlygrounded.AT89C2051hasonly15I/Oportwires,11ofwhichareusedabove,andonly4ofthemareleft.Theoutputdataisoutputthroughtheserialportofthesingle-chipmicrocomputer,andanexternal74LS164(serialinandparallelout)decoderisconnectedforexpansion.Atthesametime,thedatadisplayedis4bits,andtheremaining2portlinesstillcannotmeettherequirements.A74LS138decoderisneededtogatetheaddressofthedisplayLED.Hereweusetheinputmodeof10Vrange.Pin13ofAD574istheinputterminalofthemeasuredvoltage.BecauseonlyoneAD574conversionchipisused,theCSterminalcanbedirectlygrounded.Theconverteruses12Vpowersupplyvoltageandtheworkingvoltageis+5V.74LS164isaserialinputandparalleloutputdecoder.TheBCDserialcodeoutputbyAT89C2051throughtheserialportisdecodedby74LS164andoutputasaseven-segmentBCDcode,whichisdirectlyconnectedtoa-goftheLED,andthedatalinesofthefourLEDsareconnectedonebyone.LEDdigitaltubeusescommonanodetype.Theaddresscodeoutputby74LS138isconnectedtothecommonterminalofLEDviaatransistor2SA1015(PNP).Thedisplayofthefour-digitLEDistime-sharingstrobethroughtheaddressline,whichisourcommonlyuseddynamicscanningdisplaymethod.Itisworthmentioningthatinthedynamicscanningdisplaymode,thefrequencyofdynamicscanninghascertainrequirements.Ifthefrequencyistoolow,theLEDwillflicker.Ifthefrequencyistoohigh,thelightingtimeofeachLEDistooshort,andthebrightnessoftheLEDistoolow.Itcantbeseenclearlywithnakedeye.Soitisgenerallyappropriatetotakeabout10ms.Thisrequiresthatwhenwritingaprogram,acertainLEDshouldbeonandkeptforacertainperiodoftime.Theprogramoftenusesthecalldelaysubroutine.FAQWhatisthedifferencebetween74hc138and74LS138?Bothhavethesamefunction.74HC138ismadeofhigh-speedCMOSprocess,withlowpowerconsumption,highoutput,lowlevelandwiderange.74LS138adoptstheearlybipolarprocess,anditsdrivingcapabilityisrelativelylarger.Whatisthefunctionaldifferencebetween74ls138decoderand74ls148?74ls138isa3-8wiredecoder/multiplexer,74ls148isan8-3wireoctalpriorityencoder.Oneisdecodingandtheotherisencoding.OppositeeffectWhatsthedifferencebetween74LS138Dand74LS138N?Thosetwoarethesamechip,DisSOPpackage,NisDIPpackage.Whataretheoutputcharacteristicsof74LS138decoder?UnderthepremisethattheenableterminalsS1(activehigh),S2(activelow),andS3(activelow)arevalidatthesametime,onlyoneoutputterminalislowatatime(therestarehigh);Iftheenableterminalisinvalid,theoutputisallhighlevel.Whatdothelettersandnumbersin74ls138standfor?74ls138isa3-8-linedecoder.Thenumber74representsthe74seriesofthe54/74series,andthe74serieshasanoperatingtemperatureof0degreesto70degrees.LSisaseries,representingthelow-powerSchottkyseries.138isthevarietycode.Whatstheworkingprincipleof74ls138?74LS138workingprinciple①Whenonestrobeterminal(E1)ishighlevel,andtheothertwostrobeterminals(E2)and(E3)arelowlevel,attheoutputterminalscorrespondingtoY0toY7,thebinarycodeofaddressterminals(A0,A1,A2)canbedecodedatlowlevel.Forexample:whenA2A1A0=110,theY6outputterminaloutputsalow-levelsignal.②UsingE1,E2andE3,itcanbecascadedtoexpandintoa24-linedecoder;ifanexternalinverterisconnected,itcanalsobecascadedtoexpandintoa32-linedecoder.③Ifoneofthestrobeterminalsisusedasadatainputterminal,74LS138canalsobeusedasadatadistributor.④Itcanbeusedin8086decodingcircuittoexpandmemory.

VJ0603A820JXAAP31-VISHAY

Introduction74LS138isa3-lineto8-linedecoder/demultiplexer.Thechipisdesignedtobeusedinhigh-performancememory-decodingordata-routingapplications,requiringveryshortpropagationdelaytimes.Inhighperformancememorysystemsthesedecoderscanbeusedtominimizetheeffectsofsystemdecoding.Thethreeenablepinsofchip(inwhichTwoactive-lowandoneactive-high)reducetheneedforexternalgatesorinverterswhenexpanding.CatalogIntroductionIFullAdderCircuitIIResponderCircuitIIILogicFunctionIVFullSubtractorCircuitVThree-inputMajorityVotingFAQOrdering&QuantityIFullAdderCircuitThefulladderhas3inputterminals:An,Bn,Cn-1;2outputterminals:Sn,Cn.The74LS1383-lineto8-linedecoderhas3datainputterminals:A,B,C;3enableterminalsand8outputterminals.Here,the3datainputterminalsofthe3-lineto8-linedecodercanberegardedasthe3inputterminalsofthefulladder.Thatis,theinputsA,B,andCofthe3-lineto8-linedecodercorrespondtotheinputsAn,Bn,andCn-1ofthefulladderrespectively.Setthe3enableterminalsofthe3-lineto8-linedecodertotheeffectiveleveltomaintainnormaloperation.Thekeypointhereistodealwiththerelationshipbetweenthe8outputterminalsofthe3-lineto8-linedecoderandthe2outputsofthefulladder.UsetheoutputOUT(1,2,4,7)ofthe3-lineto8-linedecoderasa4-inputorgateinput,andthegateoutputasthesumoftheadder.UsetheoutputOUT(3,5,6,7)ofthe3-lineto8-linedecoderasa4-inputorgateinput,thegateoutputisusedasthecarryoutputoftheadder.Whentheinputoftheadderis:a=1,b=0,ci=1,theinputofthecorresponding3-lineto8-linedecoderisA=1,B=0,C=1.Theoutputofthedecoderisout(5)=1andtherestis0.Accordingtotheconnectionrelationshipdesignedabove,S=0,CO=1,whichsatisfiesthefunctionoffulladder.Figure1.FullAdderCircuitIIResponderCircuitFigure2.ResponderCircuitIIILogicFunctionF=ABC+ABC+ABC=111+110+101=Y7+Y6+Y5Accordingtotheruleof74LS138,Aisthelowbit(LSB)andDisthehighbit(MSB).The74LS138decodingoutputislowleveleffective.With74LS10NANDgate,theactuallogicisinputlowleveleffectiveorgate.Figure3.CircuitofLogicFunctionIVFullSubtractorCircuitFigure4.FullSubtractorCircuitVThree-inputMajorityVotingThedeviceconsistsofa3-lineto8-linedecoder(74LS138)andtwo4-inputNANDgates(74LS20).Therearethreebuttonsforuser.Pressthebuttontoagree,nottopressmeanstoreject.Whennoonepressesthebutton,orwhenonlyonepersonpressesthebutton,forexample,S1ispressed,butS2andS0arenotpressed.Theredlightison,thegreenlightisoff,andthebuzzerissilent,indicatingveto.Whentwoormorepeoplepressthebutton,forexample,ifS1andS2arepressed,theredlightwillbeoff,thegreenlightwillbeon,andthebuzzerwillsoundtoindicateapass.Use74LS138decoderandfour-inputNANDgate74LS20torealizethislogicfunction.Figure5.CircuitofThree-inputMajorityVotingFAQWhatisthedifferencebetween74hc138and74LS138?Bothhavethesamefunction.74HC138ismadeofhigh-speedCMOSprocess,withlowpowerconsumption,highoutput,lowlevelandwiderange.74LS138adoptstheearlybipolarprocess,anditsdrivingcapabilityisrelativelylarger.Whatisthefunctionaldifferencebetween74ls138decoderand74ls148?74ls138isa3-8wiredecoder/multiplexer,74ls148isan8-3wireoctalpriorityencoder.Oneisdecodingandtheotherisencoding.OppositeeffectWhatsthedifferencebetween74LS138Dand74LS138N?Thosetwoarethesamechip,DisSOPpackage,NisDIPpackage.Whataretheoutputcharacteristicsof74LS138decoder?UnderthepremisethattheenableterminalsS1(activehigh),S2(activelow),andS3(activelow)arevalidatthesametime,onlyoneoutputterminalislowatatime(therestarehigh);Iftheenableterminalisinvalid,theoutputisallhighlevel.Whatdothelettersandnumbersin74ls138standfor?74ls138isa3-8-linedecoder.Thenumber74representsthe74seriesofthe54/74series,andthe74serieshasanoperatingtemperatureof0degreesto70degrees.LSisaseries,representingthelow-powerSchottkyseries.138isthevarietycode.Whatstheworkingprincipleof74ls138?74LS138workingprinciple①Whenonestrobeterminal(E1)ishighlevel,andtheothertwostrobeterminals(E2)and(E3)arelowlevel,attheoutputterminalscorrespondingtoY0toY7,thebinarycodeofaddressterminals(A0,A1,A2)canbedecodedatlowlevel.Forexample:whenA2A1A0=110,theY6outputterminaloutputsalow-levelsignal.②UsingE1,E2andE3,itcanbecascadedtoexpandintoa24-linedecoder;ifanexternalinverterisconnected,itcanalsobecascadedtoexpandintoa32-linedecoder.③Ifoneofthestrobeterminalsisusedasadatainputterminal,74LS138canalsobeusedasadatadistributor.④Itcanbeusedin8086decodingcircuittoexpandmemory.

Description74LS138isa3-lineto8-linedecoder/demultiplexer.Thechipisdesignedtobeusedinhigh-performancememory-decodingordata-routingapplications,requiringveryshortpropagationdelaytimes.Inhighperformancememorysystemsthesedecoderscanbeusedtominimizetheeffectsofsystemdecoding.Thethreeenablepinsofchip(inwhichTwoactive-lowandoneactive-high)reducetheneedforexternalgatesorinverterswhenexpanding.A24-linedecodercanbeimplementedwithnoexternalinverters,anda32-linedecoderrequiresonlyoneinverter.74LS138isusedinde-multiplexingapplicationsbyusingenablepinasdatainputpin.Alsothechipinputsareclampedwithhigh-performanceSchottkydiodestosuppressline-ringingandsimplifysystemdesign.CatalogDescriptionCatalogCADModelsFeaturesApplicationPinoutLogicDiagramPackageParametersProductComplianceComponentDatasheetProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityCADModels74LS138Symbol74LS138FootprintFeaturesDesignedSpecificallyforHigh-Speed:MemoryDecodersDataTransmissionSystems3EnableInputstoSimplifyCascadingand/orDataReceptionSchottky-ClampedforHighPerformanceApplicationLinedecodersServersDigitalsystemsLineDe-multiplexingTelecomcircuitsMemorycircuitsPinoutPinFunctionPinNameDescription1A0Addressinputpin2A1Addressinputpin3A2Addressinputpin4E1Enableinput(activeLOW)5E2Enableinput(activeLOW)6E3Enableinput(activeHIGH)7O7Outputpin78GNDGround9O6Outputpin610O5Outputpin511O4Outputpin412O3Outputpin313O2Outputpin214O1Outputpin115O0Outputpin016VCCPowersupplypinLogicDiagramPackageParametersFunctionDecoder,DemultiplexerTechnologyFamilyLSVCC(Min)(V)4.75VCC(Max)(V)5.25Channels(#)1Voltage(Nom)(V)5F@nomvoltage(Max)(MHz)35ICC@nomvoltage(Max)(mA)10tpd@nomVoltage(Max)(ns)41Configuration3:8ProducttypeStandardIOL(Max)(mA)8IOH(Max)(mA)-0.4RatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange(C)0to70Bits(#)8Digitalinputleakage(Max)(uA)5ESDCDM(kV)0.75ESDHBM(kV)2ProductComplianceECCNEAR99USHTS8542390001ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74LS138DatasheetProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatisthedifferencebetween74hc138and74LS138?Bothhavethesamefunction.74HC138ismadeofhigh-speedCMOSprocess,withlowpowerconsumption,highoutput,lowlevelandwiderange.74LS138adoptstheearlybipolarprocess,anditsdrivingcapabilityisrelativelylarger.Whatisthefunctionaldifferencebetween74ls138decoderand74ls148?74ls138isa3-8wiredecoder/multiplexer,74ls148isan8-3wireoctalpriorityencoder.Oneisdecodingandtheotherisencoding.OppositeeffectWhatsthedifferencebetween74LS138Dand74LS138N?Thosetwoarethesamechip,DisSOPpackage,NisDIPpackage.Whataretheoutputcharacteristicsof74LS138decoder?UnderthepremisethattheenableterminalsS1(activehigh),S2(activelow),andS3(activelow)arevalidatthesametime,onlyoneoutputterminalislowatatime(therestarehigh);Iftheenableterminalisinvalid,theoutputisallhighlevel.Whatdothelettersandnumbersin74ls138standfor?74ls138isa3-8-linedecoder.Thenumber74representsthe74seriesofthe54/74series,andthe74serieshasanoperatingtemperatureof0degreesto70degrees.LSisaseries,representingthelow-powerSchottkyseries.138isthevarietycode.Whatstheworkingprincipleof74ls138?74LS138workingprinciple①Whenonestrobeterminal(E1)ishighlevel,andtheothertwostrobeterminals(E2)and(E3)arelowlevel,attheoutputterminalscorrespondingtoY0toY7,thebinarycodeofaddressterminals(A0,A1,A2)canbedecodedatlowlevel.Forexample:whenA2A1A0=110,theY6outputterminaloutputsalow-levelsignal.②UsingE1,E2andE3,itcanbecascadedtoexpandintoa24-linedecoder;ifanexternalinverterisconnected,itcanalsobecascadedtoexpandintoa32-linedecoder.③Ifoneofthestrobeterminalsisusedasadatainputterminal,74LS138canalsobeusedasadatadistributor.④Itcanbeusedin8086decodingcircuittoexpandmemory.DescriptionLM317isaadjustable3-terminalpositive-voltageregulator,thisbolgcoversLM317regulatoralternative,datasheet,applications,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.ABasicIntroductiontoLM317VoltageRegulatorCatalogDescriptionLM317PinoutLM317FeaturesLM317ApplicationsLM317CircuitLM317ParametersLM317CADModelLM317AdvantageLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsLM317PackageLM317AlternativesLM317EquivalentsWheretouseLM317HowtouseLM317LM317ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityLM317PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1AdjustThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage2OutputVoltage(Vout)Theregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispin3InputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM317FeaturesOutputvoltagerangeadjustablefrom1.25Vto37VOutputcurrentgreaterthan1.5AInternalshort-circuitcurrentlimitingThermaloverloadprotectionOutputsafe-areacompensationLM317ApplicationsATCAsolutionsDLP:3Dbiometrics,hyperspectralimaging,opticalnetworking,andspectroscopyDVRandDVSDesktopPCsDigitalsignageandstillcamerasECGelectrocardiogramsEVHEVchargers:levels1,2,and3ElectronicshelflabelsEnergyharvestingEthernetswitchesFemtobasestationsFingerprintandirisbiometricsHVAC:heating,ventilating,andairconditioningHigh-speeddataacquisitionandgenerationHydraulicvalvesIPphones:wiredandwirelessIntelligentoccupancysensingMotorcontrols:brushedDC,brushlessDC,lowvoltage,permanentmagnet,andsteppermotorsPoint-to-pointmicrowavebackhaulsPowerbanksolutionsPowerlinecommunicationmodemsPoweroverethernet(PoE)PowerqualitymetersPowersubstationcontrolsPrivatebranchexchanges(PBX)ProgrammablelogiccontrollersRFIDreadersRefrigeratorsSignalorwaveformgeneratorsSoftware-definedradios(SDR)Washingmachines:high-endandlow-endX-rays:baggagescanners,medical,anddentalLM317CircuitLM317ParametersOutputoptionsAdjustableOutputIout(Max)(A)1.5Vin(Max)(V)40Vin(Min)(V)3Vout(Max)(V)37Vout(Min)(V)1.25Noise(uVrms)38Iq(Typ)(mA)5ThermalresistanceJA(C/W)24Approx.price(US$)1ku|0.14Loadcapacitance(Min)(F)0RatingCatalogRegulatedoutputs(#)1FeaturesAccuracy(%)5PSRR@100KHz(dB)38Dropoutvoltage(Vdo)(Typ)(mV)2000Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to125IhsManufacturerTEXASINSTRUMENTSINCBrandNameTexasInstrumentsLM317CADModelPackagePinsDownloadDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)3ViewoptionsSOT-223(DCY)4ViewoptionsTO-220(KCS)3ViewoptionsTO-220(KCT)3ViewoptionsLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsOverrecommendedrangesofoperatingvitualjunctiontemperature(unlessotherwisenoted)LM317PackageDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)SOT-223(DCY)TO-220(KCS)TO-220(KCT)LM317AlternativesSharethesamefunctionalityandpinoutbutisnotanequivalenttothecompareddevice:LM7805,LM7806,LM7809,LM7812,LM7905,LM7912,LM117V33,XC6206P332MR.LM317EquivalentsLT1086,LM1117(SMD),PB137,LM337(NegativeVariableVoltageregulator)WheretouseLM317WhenitcomestovariablevoltageregulationrequirementsLM317wouldmostlikelybethefirstchoice.Apartfromusingitasavariablevoltageregulator,itcanalsobeusedasafixedvoltageregulator,currentlimiter,Batterycharger,ACvoltageregulatorandevenasanadjustablecurrentregulator.OnenotabledrawbackofthisICisthatithasavoltagedropofabout2.5acrossitduringregulation,soifyoulookingtoavoidthatproblemlookintotheotherequivalentICsgivenabove.So,ifyouarelookingforavariablevoltageregulatortodelivercurrentupto1.5AthenthisregulatorICmightbetherightchoiceforyourapplication.HowtouseLM317LM317isa3-terminalregulatorICanditisverysimpletouse.Ithasmanyapplicationcircuitsinitsdatasheet,butthisICisknownforbeingusedasavariablevoltageregulator.So,letslookintohowtousethisICasavariablevoltageregulator.AssaidearliertheIChas3pins,inwhichtheinputvoltageissuppliedtopin3(VIN)thenusingapairofresistors(potentialdivider)wesetavoltageatpin1(Adjust)whichwilldecidetheoutputvoltageoftheICthatisgivenoutatpin2(VOUT).Nowtomakeitactasavariablevoltageregulatorwehavetosetvariablevoltagesatpin1whichcanbedonebyusingapotentiometerinthepotentialdivider.Thebelowcircuitisdesignedtotake12V(youcansupplyupto24V)asinputandregulateitfrom1.25Vto10V.TheResistorR1(1K)andthepotentiometer(10k)togethercreatesapotentialdifferenceatadjustpinwhichregulatestheoutputpinaccordingly.TheformulaetocalculatetheOutputvoltagebasedonthevalueofresistorsisVOUT=1.25(1+(R2/R1))Now,letsverifythisformulafortheabovecircuit.ThevalueofR1is1000ohmsandthevalueofR2(potentiometer)is5000becauseitisa10kpotentiometerplacedat50%(50/100of1000is5000).Vout=1.25(1+(5000/1000))=1.256=7.5VAndthesimulationshows7.7Vwhichisprettymuchclose.Youcanvarytheoutputvoltagebysimplyvaryingthepotentiometer.Inourcircuit,amotorisconnectedasaloadwhichconsumesaround650mAyoucanconnectanyloadupto1.5A.Thesameformulaecanalsobeusedtocalculatethevalueofresistorforyourequiredoutputvoltage.Oneeasywaytodothisistousethisonlinecalculatortorandomlysubstitutethevalueofresistorsyouhaveandcheckwhichoutputvoltageyouwillget.LM317ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetLM317DatasheetFAQWhatislm317usedfor?TheLM317servesawidevarietyofapplicationsincludinglocal,oncardregulation.Thisdevicecanalsobeusedtomakeaprogrammableoutputregulator,orbyconnectingafixedresistorbetweentheadjustmentandoutput,theLM317canbeusedasaprecisioncurrentregulator.Whatisthemaximuminputvoltageoflm317?TheLM317isanadjustablevoltagelinearregulatorthatcanoutput1.2537Vatupto1.5Acurrentwithaninputvoltagerangeof340V.Whatisthedifferencebetweenlm317andlm317t?Member.Thereisnofunctionaldifferenceastheyareoneinthesame.TheTattheendjustindicatesthatitsinaTO-220package.Theyusuallytagonextrathingsafterthepartnametoreferencethingslikepackage,temprange,etc.Islm317atransistor?TheLM317isanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto32V....Byusingaheat-sinkedpasstransistorsuchasa2N3055(Q1)wecanproduceseveralampsofcurrentfarabovethe1.5ampsoftheLM317.Howdoesanlm317work?Thecircuitconsistsofalow-sideresistorandhigh-sideresistorconnectedinseriesformingaresistivevoltagedividerwhichisapassivelinearcircuitusedtoproduceanoutputvoltagewhichisafractionofitsinputvoltage.WhatisIClm317?TheLM317deviceisanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto37V.Itrequiresonlytwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltage.Thedevicefeaturesatypicallineregulationof0.01%andtypicalloadregulationof0.1%.HowdoIknowifmylm317isworking?Testinglm317t.Ifyoulooktotheic,thelegstowardsyou,therightoneistheinputpin.youmustseeadifferenceofminimum1.2Vbetweenthetwopins,otherwisetheICisfaulty.furthermore,thefirsttestistoseeifyouhaveinputvoltage!Whatistheworkingpricipleoflm317?LM317worksonaverysimpleprinciple.Itisavariablevoltageregulatori.e.supportsdifferentoutputvoltagelevelsforaconstantappliedinputvoltagesupply.HowtomakeasimplevoltageregulatorcircuitusingLM317?

DescriptionLM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.UsingLM339caneasilyformvariousvoltagecomparatorcircuitsandoscillatorcircuits.CatalogDescriptionComponentDatasheetLM339PinoutBasicParametersFeaturesApplicationPinFunctionListCircuitDiagramPackageElectricalCharacteristicsInstructionsProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityComponentDatasheetComparatorDatasheetLM339DatasheetLM339PinoutLM339PinoutBasicParametersParameternameSymbolNumericalvalueunitsupplyvoltageVCC18or36VDifferentialmodeinputvoltageVID36VCommonmodeinputvoltageVI-0.3~VCCVPowerdissipationPd570mWWorkingenvironmenttemperatureTopr0to+70℃StoragetemperatureTstg-65to150℃FeaturesLowvoltageoffset,generally2mVThecommon-modevoltagerangeisverylarge,from0vtothepowersupplyvoltageminus1.5vTheinternalresistancelimittothesignalsourceisverywideSingleSupplyOperation:2-36VDualSupplyOperation:1V-18VThepotentialofoutputcanbeselectedflexiblyandconvenientlyLM339issimilartooperationalamplifierwithnon-adjustablegain.Eachcomparatorhastwoinputsandoneoutput.Oneofthetwoinputterminalsiscalledthenon-invertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby+,andtheotheriscalledtheinvertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby-.Whencomparingtwovoltages,addafixedvoltageasareferencevoltageatanyinputterminal,andaddasignalvoltagetobecomparedattheotherterminal.Whenthevoltageatthe+terminalishigherthanthe-terminal,theoutputtubewillcutoff.Whenthevoltageofthe-terminalishigherthanthe+terminal,theoutputtubeissaturated.Thevoltagedifferencebetweenthetwoinputterminalsisgreaterthan10mV,whichcanensurethattheoutputcanbereliablyswitchedfromonestatetoanotherstate.Therefore,itisidealtousetheLM339inweaksignaloccasions.TheoutputterminalofLM339isequivalenttoacrystaltransistorthatisnotconnectedtothecollectorresistor.Whenusing,theoutputterminaltothepositivepowersupplygenerallyneedstobeconnectedtoaresistor(calledpull-upresistor).Choosingpull-upresistorswithdifferentresistancevalueswillaffectthevalueofthehighpotentialattheoutput.Becausewhentheoutputtransistorisoff,itscollectorvoltagebasicallydependsonthevalueofthepull-upresistorandtheload.Inaddition,theoutputofeachcomparatorisallowedtobeconnectedtogether.ApplicationIndustrialAutomotiveInfotainmentandClustersBodyControlModulePowerSupervisionOscillatorsPeakDetectorsLogicVoltageTranslationPinFunctionListPinNumberPinfunctionSymbolPinNumberPinfunctionSymbol1Output2OUT28Invertinginput31N-(3)2Output1OUT19Forwardinput31N+(3)3PowerSupplyVCC+10Invertinginput41N-(4)4Invertinginput11N-(1)11Forwardinput41N+(4)5Positiveinput11N+(1)12PowerSupplyVcc6Invertinginput21N-(2)13Output4OUT47Forwardinput2OUT2(2)14Output3OUT3CircuitDiagramLM339CircuitDiagramPackageLM339PackageElectricalCharacteristicsVCC=5.0V,Tamb=25℃,unlessotherwisestatedParameternameSymbolTestconditionsMinimumTypicalMaximumunitInputoffsetvoltageVIOVCM=0toVCC-1.5VO(P)=1.4V,Rs=0-1.05.0mVInputoffsetcurrentIIO--550nAInputbiascurrentIb--65250nACommonmodeinputvoltageVIC-0-VCC-1.5VQuiescentCurrentICCVCC=+5V,noload-1.12.0mAVCC=+30V,noload-1.32.5mAVoltagegainAVVCC=15V,RL>15k-200-V/mVSinkcurrentIsinkVi(-)>1V,Vi(+)=0V,Vo(p)<1.5V616-mAOutputleakagecurrentIOLEVi(-)=0V,Vi(+)=1V,VO=5V-0.1-nAInstructionsTheLM339seriesarehighgain,widebandwidthdeviceswhich,likemostcomparators,caneasilyoscillateiftheoutputleadisinadvertentlyallowedtocapacitivelycoupletotheinputsviastraycapacitance.Thisshowsuponlyduringtheoutputvoltagetransitionintervalsasthecomparatorchangesstates.Powersupplybypassingisnotrequiredtosolvethisproblem.StandardPCboardlayoutishelpfulasitreducesstrayinput-outputcoupling.Reducingthisinputresistorsto10kreducesthefeedbacksignallevelsandfinally,addingevenasmallamount(1to10mv)ofpositivefeedback(hysteresis)causessucharapidtransitionthatoscillationsduetostrayfeedbackarenotpossible.SimplysocketingtheICandattachingresistorstothepinswillcauseinput-outputoscillationsduringthesmalltransitionintervalsunlesshysteresisisused.Iftheinputsignalisapulsewaveform,withrelativelyfastriseandfalltimes,hysteresisisnotrequired.Allpinsofanyunusedcomparatorsshouldbetiedtothenegativesupply.ThebiasnetworkofLM339establishesadraincurrentwhichisindependentofthemagnitudeofthepowersupplyvoltageovertherangeoffrom2Vto30V.Itisusuallyunnecessarytouseabypasscapacitoracrossthepowersupplyline.ThedifferentialinputvoltagemaybelargerthanV+withoutdamagingthedevice.Protectionshouldbeprovidedtopreventtheinputvoltagesfromgoingnegativemorethan-0.3VDC(at25℃).Aninputclampdiodecanbeusedasshownintheapplicationssection.TheoutputoftheLM339istheuncommittedcollectorofagrounded-emitterNPNoutputtransistor.ManycollectorscanbetiedtogethertoprovideanoutputORingfunction.Anoutputpull-upresistorcanbeconnectedtoanyavailablepowersupplyvoltagewithinthepermittedsupplyvoltagerangeandthereisnorestrictiononthisvoltageduetothemagnitudeofthevoltagewhichisappliedtotheV+terminaloftheLM1339package.TheoutputcanalsobeusedasasimpleSPSTswitchtoground(whenapull-upresistorisnotused).Theamountofcurrentwhichtheoutputdevicecansinkislimitedbythedriveavailable(whichisindependentofV+)andtheofthisdevice.Whenthemaximumcurrentlimitisreached(approximately16mA),theoutputtransistorwillcomeoutofsaturationandtheoutputvoltagewillriseveryrapidly.Theoutputsaturationvoltageislimitedbytheapproximately60RSAToftheoutputtransistor.Thelowoffsetvoltageoftheoutputtransistor(1mV)allowstheoutputtoclampessentiallytogroundlevelforsmallloadcurrents.ProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.DescriptionThe74HC595isanhighspeedCMOS8-BITSHIFTREGISTERS/OUTPUTLATCHES(3-STATE)fabricatedwithsilicongateC2MOStechnology.Thisdevicecontainsan8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterthatfeedsan8-bitD-typestorageregister.Thestorageregisterhas83-STATEoutputs.Separateclocksareprovidedforboththeshiftregisterandthestorageregister.Theshiftregisterhasadirect-overridingclear,serialinput,andserialoutput(standard)pinsforcascading.Boththeshiftregisterandstorageregisterusepositive-edgetriggeredclocks.Ifbothclocksareconnectedtogether,theshiftregisterstatewillalwaysbeoneclockpulseaheadofthestorageregister.Allinputsareequippedwithprotectioncircuitsagainststaticdischargeandtransientexcessvoltage.TheShiftRegister:Explained[74HC595]CatalogDescriptionFeaturesApplicationPinoutLogicDiagramParametersComponentDatasheetPackageProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityFeaturesLowquiescentcurrent:80AmaximumLowinputcurrent:1Amaximum8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterwithstorageWideoperatingvoltagerange:2V~6VShiftregisterhasdirectclearGuaranteedshiftfrequency:DCto30MHzPackage:SOP16ApplicationSerial-to-paralleldataconversionRemotecontrolholdingregisterPinoutPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltageLogicDiagramParametersBrandNameDiodesLow-powerconsumptionWhenTA=25℃,Icc=4A(MAX)LowquiescentcurrentMaximum80ALowinputcurrentMaximum1AWideoperatingvoltagerange2V-6VPackageDIP16/SOP16ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74HC595DatasheetPackageProductManufacturerDiodesIncorporatedisaleadingglobalmanufacturerandsupplierofhigh-qualityapplicationspecificstandardproductswithinthebroaddiscrete,logic,analog,andmixed-signalsemiconductormarkets.DiodescorporateheadquartersandAmericassalesofficearelocatedinPlano,Texas,andMilpitas,California.Diodesservetheconsumerelectronics,computing,communications,industrial,andautomotivemarkets.Diodesproductsincludediodes,rectifiers,transistors,MOSFETs,protectiondevices,function-specificarrays,singlegatelogic,amplifiersandcomparators,Hall-effectandtemperaturesensors,powermanagementdevices,includingLEDdrivers,AC-DCconvertersandcontrollers,DC-DCswitchingandlinearvoltageregulators,andvoltagereferencesalongwithspecialfunctiondevices,suchasUSBpowerswitches,loadswitches,voltagesupervisors,andmotorcontrollers.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.

DescriptionTheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.MMBT3904LT1GHowdoesatransistorwork?CatalogMMBT3904LT1GDescriptionMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesTheseDevicesarePbFree,HalogenFree/BFRFreeandareRoHSCompliantSPrefixforAutomotiveandOtherApplicationsRequiringUniqueSiteandControlChangeRequirements;AECQ101QualifiedandPPAPCapableMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetMMBT3904LT1GDatasheetFAQWhatisMMBT3904LT1G?TheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.Whatisatransistor?Atransistorisasemiconductordeviceusedtoamplifyorswitchelectronicsignalsandelectricalpower.Itiscomposedofsemiconductormaterialusuallywithatleastthreeterminalsforconnectiontoanexternalcircuit.WhatisPNPtransistor?APNPtransistorisabipolarjunctiontransistorconstructedbysandwichinganN-typesemiconductorbetweentwoP-typesemiconductors.APNPtransistorhasthreeterminalsaCollector(C),Emitter(E)andBase(B).ThePNPtransistorbehavesliketwoPNjunctionsdiodesconnectedbacktoback.Whatdoesatransistordo?Atransistor,alsoknownasaBJT(BipolarJunctionTransistor),isacurrentdrivensemiconductordevicewhichcanbeusedtocontroltheflowofelectriccurrentinwhichasmallamountofcurrentintheBaseleadcontrolsalargercurrentbetweentheCollectorandEmitter.Howmanytypesoftransistorarethere?Transistorsarebasicallyclassifiedintotwotypes;theyareBipolarJunctionTransistors(BJT)andFieldEffectTransistors(FET).TheBJTsareagainclassifiedintoNPNandPNPtransistors.TheFETtransistorsareclassifiedintoJFETandMOSFET.Whatistransistordiagram?DiagramAshowsanNPNtransistorwhichisoftenusedasatypeofswitch.Asmallcurrentorvoltageatthebaseallowsalargervoltagetoflowthroughtheothertwoleads(fromthecollectortotheemitter).ThecircuitshownindiagramBisbasedonanNPNtransistor.Whentheswitchispressedacurrentpassesthroughtheresistorintothebaseofthetransistor.Thetransistorthenallowscurrenttoflowfromthe+9voltstothe0vs,andthelampcomeson.Thetransistorhastoreceiveavoltageatitsbaseanduntilthishappensthelampdoesnotlight.Whatarethetwomainappilcationsoftransistor?Transistorsarecommonlyusedindigitalcircuitsaselectronicswitcheswhichcanbeeitherinanonoroffstate,bothforhigh-powerapplicationssuchasswitched-modepowersuppliesandforlow-powerapplicationssuchaslogicgates.DescriptionBC327isageneralpurposePNPtransistor,todaywewilldiscussaboutitspinoutconfiguration,equivalent,uses,packagedimensionsandmanyotherdetails.BC327UsingTransistorsBC327BC337toMakeaMiniPowerfulAudioAmplifierCatalogueDescriptionBC327IntroductionBC327PinConfigurationBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsBC327CADModelsBC327ApplicationsBC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327BC327ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityBC327IntroductionBC327isageneralpurposePNPBJPtransistorthatcanbeusedforswitchingandamplificationpurposesinelectroniccircuits.Thetransistorfeatures800mAcollectorcurrenthenceitcanbeusedtodrivevarietyofloadsinanelectronicapplication.Themaxcollector-emittervoltageis-45Vthereforeitcaneasilyhandleloadvoltageunder45V.Apartfromthattransistoralsofeatures625mWcollectordissipationandDCcurrentgainofmaximum630thereforeitcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorforanytypeofsignalamplification.BC327manufacturedindifferenthFEclassificationthatcanbedifferentiatewiththecodenumberwrittenafterthetransistornumber.Ifyoufindcode-16afterthetransistornumberthenthehFEwillbe100~250,ifthecodeis-25thenthehFEwillbe160~400andifthecodeis-40thenthehFEwillbe250~630.BC327PinConfigurationPinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,normallyconnectedtoload2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor,UsedtoturnONorOFFthetransistor3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter,normallyconnectedtogroundBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsPackageType:TO-92TransistorType:PNPMaxCollectorCurrent(IC):-800mAMaxCollector-EmitterVoltage(VCE):-45VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):-50VMaxEmitter-BaseVoltage(VBE):-5VMaxCollectorDissipation(Pc):625MilliwattMaxTransitionFrequency(fT):100MHzMinimumMaximumDCCurrentGain(hFE):100to630MaxStorageOperatingtemperatureShouldbe:-55to+150CentigradeBC327CADModelsBC327PartSymbolBC327FootprintBC327ApplicationsOutputofMicrocontrollerstoDriveLoadsAnyTypeofSignalAmplificationAudioamplifierAudioAmpStagesDriveLoadsUnder800mABC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327LikeotheressentialgeneralpurposetransistorstheBC327isalsoamustofhavetransistorinyourlabbecauseitcanbeusedinwidevarietyofapplications.Itcanbeusedasaswitchtodriveloadsupto800mAwhichincludeshighpowerrelays,highpowertransistors,highpowerLEDs,ICsandotherpartsofacircuit.With-5Vemitter-basevoltagethistransistorcanalsobeusedastheoutputofmicrocontrollerstodriveloadofupto800mAwhichcaneasilydrivemotors,modules,sensorsetc.HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327Togetlongtermgoodperformancewiththistransistorinyourelectronicapplicationsitisrecommendedtonotdriveloadmorethan0.8Aor800mA,donotdriveloadormorethan-45V,alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistorwiththetransistor.Donotstoreoroperatethistransistorintemperaturebelow-55centigradeandabove+150centigradeandalwayscheckpinconfigurationbeforeplacinginthecircuit.BC327ManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetBC327Datasheet