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IHLP3232DZER6R8M01-VISHAY

时间:2021-04-23 01:53:18 来源:网络整理编辑:LMV7219

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driving load more than 100mA may burn the transistor or make it weak in performance.

driving load more than 100mA may burn the transistor or make it weak in performance.

TL074isaJFET-inputquadoperationalamplifiermonolithicintegratedic.CatalogTL074DescriptionTL074PinoutTL074FeaturesTL074AlternativeWheretouseTL074opampHowtouseTL074opampTL074PackageTL074ApplicationsTL074ManufacturerComponentDatasheetTL074DescriptionTL074isaJFET-inputquadoperationalamplifiermonolithicintegratedic.Thisop-ampICconsistsoffourOP-AMPs.Itconsistsofhighvoltagejunctionfield-effecttransistors(JFETs)andbipolarjunctiontransistors(BJTs).Moreover,inputbiasandbiascurrentsarelow.Onthecontrary,theslewrateisveryhigh.TL074ishighlyrecommendedforpre-amplificationaudioasithaslownoiseandlowharmonicdistortion.Mostimportantly,inputoffsetadjustmentispossibleexternallymakinguseofthespecificcircuits.Furthermore,frequencycompensationispossibleinternallyandtheoperationofTL074isrenderedaslatch-up-free.TL074PinoutTL074TL074PinoutPinNumberDetails1outputpinof1stOP-AMP2invertinginputvoltageto1stOP-AMP3non-invertinginputvoltageto1stOP-AMP4(Vcc+)connectthepositivesupplyvoltage5non-invertinginputvoltageto2ndOP-AMP6aninvertinginputvoltageto2ndOP-AMP7outputof2ndOP-AMP8outputof3rdOP-AMP9aninvertinginputvoltageto3rdOP-AMP10non-invertinginputvoltageto3rdOP-AMP11(Vcc-)connectingnegativesupplyvoltage12non-invertinginputvoltageto4thOP-AMP13aninvertinginputvoltageto4thOP-AMP14outputof4thOP-AMPTL074FeaturesJFETInputOp-AmpQuadPackageTypicalOperatingVoltage:+15Vto-15VMaximumoperatingVoltage:36VInputBiasCurrent:65pACommonmodeRejectionRatioCMRR:100dBLowLevelInputVoltage:0.8V(max)PropagationDelay(Pd)/Transitiontime:29ns(max)LowInputBiasandOffsetCurrentOutputShortcircuitprotectionAvailablein14-pinPDIP,SO-14,TSSOPpackageswithvariationslikeTL74A,TL74AB,TL74ACandTL74LTL074AlternativeLM741A,LM741C,LM709C,LM201,MC1439,andLM748WheretouseTL074opampTheTL074isaQuadPackageOperationalAmplifier,meaningthatithasfourOp-AmpsinsideitandthateachOp-Ampcanbeusedindependently.ThemaindistinguishingfeatureoftheTL074Op-Ampisthatitincorporateshigh-voltageJFETandbipolartransistorswhichhelpthetransistortohaveveryhighinputimpedanceandlowcurrentbias.ThisOp-Ampalsohaslownoiseandharmonicdistortionmakingittheidealchoiceforpre-amplifieraudio.SoifyourelookingforaQuadpackageandJFETdrivenOp-AmpIC,thisICmightbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtouseTL074opampTL074isverysimilartotheLM324Op-Amp,bothofwhichhavefourOp-Ampsinsideandhavetheexactsamepinouts.However,theydifferslightlyintheircharacteristicsastheTL074hasaJFETinsideit.IfyouarecurioustolearnaboutthefewapplicationcircuitsofthisIC,youcanreadhowLM324isused,sincebothICssharethesameapplications.TL074PackageTL074ApplicationsVoltagefollowerUnitygaininvertingamplifierBilateralcurrentsourceAC/DCconverterInstrumentationamplifierSquarewavegeneratorVoltagecomparatorPowersuppliesOscillatorsHalf-waverectifiersTL074ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanyheadquarteredinDallas,Texas,thatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.Itisoneofthetop10semiconductorcompaniesworldwidebasedonsalesvolume.Thecompanysfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountformorethan80%ofitsrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessingtechnologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Thecompanyholds45,000patentsworldwideasof2016.ComponentDatasheetTL074DatasheetLM338isanadjustable3-terminalpositivevoltageregulatorwhichcapableofsupplyinginexcessof5Aovera1.2Vto32Voutputrange.ThisblogwillintroduceLM338fromitspinout,featurestoitsapplicationcircuits,datasheetandincludingsomeotherinformation.CatalogLM338DescriptionLM338PinoutLM338FeaturesLM338ParameterLM338FunctionalBlockDiagramLM338SchematicDiagramLM338CircuitLM338ApplicationLM338PackageLM338ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQLM338DescriptionTheLM338isanadjustable3-terminalpositivevoltageregulatorwhichcapableofsupplyinginexcessof5Aovera1.2-Vto32-Voutputrange.Itisexceptionallyeasytouseandrequireonly2resistorstosettheoutputvoltage.Carefulcircuitdesignhasresultedinoutstandingloadandlineregulation,comparabletomanycommercialpowersupplies.TheLM338voltageregulatoroffersfulloverloadprotection.TheLM338suppliedinastandard3-leadtransistorpackage.Normally,nocapacitorsareneededunlessthedeviceissituatedmorethan150mm(6inches)fromtheinputfiltercapacitorsinwhichcaseaninputbypasscapacitorisrequired.Anoptionaloutputcapacitorcanbeaddedtoimprovetransientresponse.Theadjustmentterminaloftheregulatorcanbebypassedtoachieveveryhighripplerejection.RefertotheadjustableregulatordatasheetsbelowformoreinformationabouttheLM338adjustablevoltageregulator.LM338PinoutLM338LM338PinoutLM338FeaturesSpecified7-APeakOutputCurrentSpecified5-AOutputCurrentAdjustableOutputDownto1.2VSpecifiedThermalRegulationCurrentLimitConstantWithTemperatureP+ProductEnhancementTestedOutputisShort-CircuitProtectedLM338ParameterManufacturer:TexasInstrumentsSeries:-Packaging:TubePartStatus:ActiveOutputConfiguration:PositiveOutputType:AdjustableNumberofRegulators:1Voltage-Input(Max):40VVoltage-Output(Min/Fixed):1.24VVoltage-Output(Max):32VVoltageDropout(Max):-Current-Output:5APSRR:75dB~60dB(120Hz)ControlFeatures:-ProtectionFeatures:OverTemperatureShortCircuitOperatingTemperature:0C~125CMountingType:ThroughHolePackage/Case:TO-220-3SupplierDevicePackage:TO-220-3BasePartNumber:LM338LM338FunctionalBlockDiagramLM338SchematicDiagramYoucanusethisVoltageRegulatorCalculatortovarythevalueoftheprogramresistor(R1)andoutputsetresistor(R2)andcalculatetheoutputvoltagefortheLM338ofthreeterminaladjustablevoltageregulator.ThisVoltageRegulatorCalculatorwillworkforallvoltageregulatorswithareferencevoltage(VREF)of1.25.FortheLM338andLM350regulators,120ohmsistypicallyusedfortheprogramresistorR1.However,othervaluessuchas150or220ohmscanalsobeusedforR1.TheLM338voltageregulatorcanalsobeconfiguredtoregulatecurrentinacircuit.LM338SchematicdiagramLM338CircuitThefollowingschematicsshowtypicalcircuitapplicationsfortheLM338voltageregulator.Note:ThedropoutvoltageoftheICregulatorisabout1.5to2.5Volts,dependontheoutputcurrent(IOUT).Therefore,theinputvoltagetotheLM338regulatorwillneedtobeatleast1.5Vto2.5Vgreaterthanthedesiredoutputvoltage.Plantobeabout3Vofthedesiredoutputvoltage.Youdontwanttousetoohighaninputvoltageastheexcesswillneedtobedissipatedasheatthroughtheregulator.Seethedatasheetsofthevoltageregulatoraboveforspecificdetailsonthevoltagedrop-offandheatsinkrequirements.Figure1.1.2to25VAdjustableVoltageRegulatorWhenusingexternalcapacitorswithavoltageregulatoritmaybenecessarytouseprotectiondiodestopreventthecapacitorsfromdischargingthroughlowcurrentpointsintothevoltageregulator.Evensmallcapacitorscanhavealowenoughinternalseriesresistancetobeabletodeliver20Aspikeswhenshortened.Althoughthesurgeisveryshortinduration,thereisenoughenergytodamagepartsoftheregulatorIC.Noprotectiondiodesarerequiredforoutputvoltagesoflessthan25Vorgreaterthan10uFcapacitance.Figure2showstheLM338withprotectiondiodesincludedforusewithvoltageoutputsgreaterthan25Vandhighvaluesofoutputcapacitance.Figure2.AdjustableVoltageRegulatorwithProtectionDiodesSolidtantalumcapacitorscanbeusedonthevoltageoutputtoimprovetheripplerejectionofthevoltageregulator.Figure3.AdjustableVoltageRegulatorwithImprovedRippleRejectionLM338ApplicationAdjustablePowerSuppliesConstantCurrentRegulatorsBatteryChargersLM338PackageLM338ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanyheadquarteredinDallas,Texas,thatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.Itisoneofthetop10semiconductorcompaniesworldwidebasedonsalesvolume.Thecompanysfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountformorethan80%ofitsrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessingtechnologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Thecompanyholds45,000patentsworldwideasof2016.ComponentDatasheetLM338VoltageRegulatorDatasheetFAQWhatislm338?TheLM138/LM238/LM338areadjustable3-terminalpositivevoltageregulatorscapableofsupplyinginexcessof5Aovera1.2Vto32Voutputrange.WhatisthecurrentratingofvoltageregulatorICLM338K?TheLM317/LM338/LM350familyofadjustable3-terminalpositivevoltageregulatorscantakeainputof3to40VoltsDCandprovidearegulatedvoltageovera1.2Vto37Voutputrange.TheLM317voltageregulatorscanprovideupto1.5Amperes(A)ofoutputcurrent.Whatisadjustablevoltageregulator?AnadjustablevoltageregulatorproducesaDCoutputvoltage,whichcanbeadjustedtoanyothervalueofcertainvoltagerange.Hence,adjustablevoltageregulatorisalsocalledasavariablevoltageregulator.TheDCoutputvoltagevalueofanadjustablevoltageregulatorcanbeeitherpositiveornegative.Whatisfunctionofvoltageregulator?Avoltageregulatorgeneratesafixedoutputvoltageofapresetmagnitudethatremainsconstantregardlessofchangestoitsinputvoltageorloadconditions.Therearetwotypesofvoltageregulators:linearandswitching.Howdoyoutestavoltageregulator?Thebestwaytotestavoltageregulatoriswithamultimeter,andwhatyoudoisyouputyourmultimeterclampsdirectlyonthebatteryterminals.Positivereadtopositiveandblacktonegative.Andyousaidittovoltage,andwiththecaroff,youshouldhavealittleover12volts.Thatsthatsahealthybattery.

IHLP3232DZER6R8M01-VISHAY

TheTMC2208steppermotordriversareacommonchoiceforreducingsteppermotornoisein3Dprintersandlasercutters.TheyareparticularlyusefulbecausetheyareanalmostdirectreplacementforthealreadywidelyusedA4988steppermotordriver.Theyhavethesamefootprintandpinout,sotheycanbeusedtoreplacetheA4988driverwithoutanymajorchanges.CatalogIA4988StepperDriverBasics1.1SpecificationsofA4988StepperDriverIC1.2A4988StepperDriverPinoutsIITMC2208StepperDriverBasics2.1SpecificationsofTMC2208StepperDriverIC2.2TMC2208StepperDriverPinoutIIIA4988andTMC2208DriveModuleReplacementProgramIA4988StepperDriverBasicsTheA4988driverisprovidedbyAllegro(Worcester,Massachusetts,USA).Allegromainlydevelopsintegratedcircuitsolutionsformotorcontrol,regulationandmagneticfieldsensingapplications.1.1SpecificationsofA4988StepperDriverICMaximumsubdivision16Maximumoutputcurrent2A(requiresastrongheatsink)TheICworkingvoltageis3.3compatiblewith5V,andtheloaddrivingvoltageis5~35VSmallsize(QFN28(5x5)package)LowpriceThemotorhaslargevibrationsandobvioushigh-frequencynoise1.2A4988StepperDriverPinoutsPinNameDescriptionVDDGNDConnectedto5VandGNDofControllerVMOTGNDUsedtopowerthemotor1A,1B,2A,2BConnectedtothe4coilsofmotorDIRECTIONMotorDirectionControlpinSTEPStepsControlPinMS1,MS2,MS3MicrostepSelectionPinsSLEEPPinsForControllingPowerStatesRESET-ENABLE-IITMC2208StepperDriverBasicsTheTMC22xxseriesofsteppermotordriversareprovidedbyTRINAMIC(Hamburg,Germany),whichismainlycommittedtothedesignanddevelopmentofmotioncontrolproducts(steppingandDCbrushlesssystems).Themainproductsincludechips,modulesandsystems.TheTMC22XXseriesdriversreleasedbyTRINAMICaremainlyusedinFDM3DprintersTMC2208,TMC2224andMC2100.2.1SpecificationsofTMC2208StepperDriverICHighsubdivision(fullstep256subdivisionwork)LowvibrationThemaximumoutputcurrentis1.2A(requiresastrongheatsink)ICworkingvoltage5V,loaddrivingvoltage5~36VSmallsize(QFN28(5x5)package)Thepriceisslightlyhigher(retailat10-15yuan)Itcaneliminatemostofthemotornoiseandvibrationunderlow-speedoperation,andismainlyusedinofficeareas,residentialareasandotherenvironmentsthatrequirehighnoisestandards.2.2TMC2208StepperDriverPinoutPinFunction.PowerSupplyGNDGroundVMMotorSupplyVoltage(5.5-35V)VIOLogicSupplyVoltage(3.3-5V).MotorOutputsM1AMotorCoil1M1BMotorCoil1M2AMotorCoil2M2BMotorCoil2.ControlInputsSTEPStep-SignalInputDIRDirection-SignalInputENEnableMotorOutputs(GND=on,VIO=off).ConfigurationMS1Step-Configuration,pdMS2Step-Configuration,pdPDN_UARTUARTandAutoPowerDownControl(GND=on,VIO=off)DIAGDiagnosticsOutput(VIO=error)INDEXIndexOutput(onepulsepereachfourfullsteps)VREFAnalogReferenceVoltageIIIA4988andTMC2208DriveModuleReplacementProgramA4988TMC2208ModuleTheTMC2208driverboardprogramannouncedontheofficialwebsiteofTMC2208canbefullycompatiblewiththeexistingA4988drivermodule.TheMS1andMS2pinsmustbepulledup,andtheTMC2208drivercanhave256subdivisioneffects.(Note:TheoriginalA4988driveworksubdivisionmustbe8subdivisionor16subdivision,thatis,theMS1andMS2pinsmustbepulledup)TMC2208driver256subdivisionrealizationcharacteristics:Thereisno16subdivisioncalculationforthepulses4988and2208outputbythemaincontrolMCU.Thedifferenceisthatthedrivingcurrentof4988tothesteppermotorisa16subdividedwaveform,thecurrentwaveformsubdividedtoolow,andthetheoreticalsinewaveistoofarapart.Therefore,themotordrivenby4988exhibitsexcessivevibrationandnoise.Althoughthe2208driveobtainsthesubdividedpulsesofMCU16,thedrivecurrentwaveformoutputtothemotorthroughalgorithmprocessingissubdividedby256.ThebiggestadvantageofthisisthatitreducestheburdenonthemaincontrolMUC,butthepowerconsumptionandheatgenerationofthedriverICitselfareincreased.A4988drives16subdivisioncurrentwaveformsTMC2208drives256subdivisioncurrentwaveformsInthisarticle,youcanlearnthebasicinformationanddifferencesofL293DanditsothersimilarmodelssuchasL298N,ULN2003,L293B,L293Eetc.CatalogL293DvsL298NL293DvsULN2003L293DvsL293BL293DvsL293EL293DvsL293DNEL293DvsL293NFAQL293DvsL298NL293DL298NDatasheetL293DDatasheetL293DPush-PullFourChannelDriverL298NDatasheetL298DualFullBridgeDriverL293DBasicsTheDeviceisamonolithicintegratedhighvoltage,highcurrentfourchanneldriverdesignedtoacceptstandardDTLorTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloads(suchasrelayssolenoides,DCandsteppingmotors)andswitchingpowertransistors.Tosimplifyuseastwobridgeseachpairofchannelsisequippedwithanenableinput.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogic,allowingoperationatalowervoltageandinternalclampdiodesareincluded.Thisdeviceissuitableforuseinswitchingapplicationsatfrequenciesupto5kHz.L298NBasicsTheL298isanintegratedmonolithiccircuitina15-leadMultiwattandPowerSO20packages.Itisahighvoltage,highcurrentdualfull-bridgedriverdesignedtoacceptstandardTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandsteppingmotors.Twoenableinputsareprovidedtoenableordisablethedeviceindependentlyoftheinputsignals.Theemittersofthelowertransistorsofeachbridgeareconnectedtogetherandthecorrespondingexternalterminalcanbeusedfortheconnectionofanexternalsensingresistor.Anadditionalsupplyinputisprovidedsothatthelogicworksatalowervoltage.L293DvsL298NThebasicdifferencebetweentheL293DandtheL298Nmotordriver:L293DDriverscanoperatefrom4.5Vto36V,whileL298Ncanoperateatupto46V.Maximum600mACurrentcanbedrawnfrombothL293Dchannels,whileL298NMotorDrivercandrawupto2Afrombothchannels.L293isaquadruplemotordriverthatusesahalf-HdriverwhileL298isadualfull-Hdriver,i.e.inL293allfourinput-outputlinesareindependentwhileinL298thehalf-Hdrivercannotbeusedindependently,onlyafullHdrivermustbeused.AstheoutputcurrentofL293foreachchannelis650mA,whereasitis2AforL298.TheheatsinkisthereforeprovidedbytheL298motordriver.EMFsaresuppliedinternallyinL293DbutmustbeprovidedexternallyinL298.L293DissuitableforsmallcurrentdrawingmotorssuchastheBOmotor,DCmotorsupto500RPMandsmallsteppermotorswhichtakelesscurrentupto600mAattheirhighesttorquerating.WhereasL298Nhastheadvantageofhigheroutputcurrentupto2AandisthereforesuitableforhightorqueandhighRPMmotorssuchasJohnsonmotorsandhightorqueDCGearedmotors.L293DvsULN2003L293DULN2003DatasheetL293DDatasheetL293DPush-PullFourChannelDriverULN2003DatasheetULN2003SevenDarlingtonArraysL293DBasicsTheDeviceisamonolithicintegratedhighvoltage,highcurrentfourchanneldriverdesignedtoacceptstandardDTLorTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloads(suchasrelayssolenoides,DCandsteppingmotors)andswitchingpowertransistors.Tosimplifyuseastwobridgeseachpairofchannelsisequippedwithanenableinput.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogic,allowingoperationatalowervoltageandinternalclampdiodesareincluded.Thisdeviceissuitableforuseinswitchingapplicationsatfrequenciesupto5kHz.ULN2003BasicsTheULN2003isahigh-voltage,high-currentDarlingtonarraywhichcontainingsevenopencollectorDarlingtonpairswithcommonemitters.Eachchannelisratedat500mAandcanwithstandpeakcurrentsof600mA.Suppressiondiodesareincludedforinductiveloaddrivingandtheinputsarepinnedoppositetheoutputstosimplifyboardlayout.L293DvsULN2003TheL293DisanHbridgemotordriveranditisusuallyusedtodrive1or2motorsforwardandback.TheULN2003isadarlingtonhighcurrentdriver,whichmeansitcanbeusedtodriveanydeviceinitscurrentrange,soessentiallyitsaswitch.IfyouaredrivingasteppermotorthentheL293DwilldrivethemaswellastheULN2003onceyousortoutthepins.Whatsmore,L293Donlyprovidedaround600MAofcurrentthough.L293Dhasfourpush-pulloutputsoitcansink(providegnd)orsourcecurrent(providepositivesupply)soitcanbeusedforunipolarorbipolarmotorsULN2003canonlysinkcurrent(providegnd)becausetheoutputsareopencollector,itcanonlydriveunipolarmotors.L293DvsL293BL293DL293BDatasheetL293DDatasheetL293DPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293BDatasheetL293BPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293DBasicsTheDeviceisamonolithicintegratedhighvoltage,highcurrentfourchanneldriverdesignedtoacceptstandardDTLorTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloads(suchasrelayssolenoides,DCandsteppingmotors)andswitchingpowertransistors.Tosimplifyuseastwobridgeseachpairofchannelsisequippedwithanenableinput.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogic,allowingoperationatalowervoltageandinternalclampdiodesareincluded.Thisdeviceissuitableforuseinswitchingapplicationsatfrequenciesupto5kHz.L293BBasicsTheL293Bisaquadpush-pulldrivercapableofdeliveringoutputcurrentsto1Aperchannel.EachchanneliscontrolledbyaTTLcompatiblelogicinputandeachpairofdrivers(afullbridge)isequippedwithaninhibitinputwhichturnsoffallfourtransistors.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogicsothatitmayberunoffalowervoltagetoreducedissipation.L293DvsL293BOneoftheverycommonH-bridgeICsavailableinthemarketisL293BorL293D.ItisinfactadoubleH-Bridge,sincemotionoftwomotorscanbesimultaneouslycontrolledoneachhalf.WhileinterfacingwithMicrocontrollersGND(0V)andvoltagesupplytothemotorisneededinH-Bridgesinceinputisbeingprovidedfrommicrocontroller.TheL293Disratedas0.6Apermotor.TheL293Bcanhandle1amppermotorbuttheirpinsseemtobedifferent,andthewaythemotorsmustbeconnectedseemsnottobethesame.L293(noD)iscomparabletoL293B.Bothwillneedexternaldiodes.L293Dhasinternaldiodesandthelowercurrentrating.L293DvsL293EL293DL293EDatasheetL293DDatasheetL293DPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293EDatasheetL293EPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293DBasicsTheDeviceisamonolithicintegratedhighvoltage,highcurrentfourchanneldriverdesignedtoacceptstandardDTLorTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloads(suchasrelayssolenoides,DCandsteppingmotors)andswitchingpowertransistors.Tosimplifyuseastwobridgeseachpairofchannelsisequippedwithanenableinput.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogic,allowingoperationatalowervoltageandinternalclampdiodesareincluded.Thisdeviceissuitableforuseinswitchingapplicationsatfrequenciesupto5kHz.L293EBasicsTheL293Eisaquadpush-pulldrivercapableofdeliveringoutputcurrentsto1Aperchannel.EachchanneliscontrolledbyaTTLcompatiblelogicinputandeachpairofdrivers(afullbridge)isequippedwithaninhibitinputwhichturnsoffallfourtransistors.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogicsothatitmayberunoffalowervoltagetoreducedissipation.Additionally,theL293Ehasexternalconnectionofsensingresistors,forswitchmodecontrol.L293DvsL293EL293DL293ERohsCodeNoPartLifeCycleCodeObsoleteActiveIhsManufacturerSGS-ATESCOMPONENTIELECTRONICISPASTMICROELECTRONICSPackageDescriptionDIP,DIP16,.3DIP,ReachComplianceCodeunknownnot_compliantJESD-30CodeR-PDIP-T16R-PDIP-T20JESD-609Codee0e3NumberofTerminals1620PackageBodyMaterialPLASTIC/EPOXYPLASTIC/EPOXYPackageCodeDIPDIPPackageEquivalenceCodeDIP16,.3PackageShapeRECTANGULARRECTANGULARPackageStyleIN-LINEIN-LINEPowerSupplies5,24VQualificationStatusNotQualifiedNotQualifiedSurfaceMountNONOTechnologyBIPOLARBIPOLARTerminalFinishTin/Lead(Sn/Pb)Tin(Sn)TerminalFormTHROUGH-HOLETHROUGH-HOLETerminalPitch2.54mm2.54mmTerminalPositionDUALDUALBaseNumberMatches22PartPackageCodeDIPPinCount20ECCNCodeEAR99HTSCode8542.39.00.01FactoryLeadTime2Weeks,6DaysSamacsysDescription4-ChPowerDriver1APushPullPowerDIP20STMicroelectronicsL293EMotorDriver,,20-PinPowerDIPBuilt-inProtectionsOVERCURRENT;THERMALInputCharacteristicsSTANDARDInterfaceICTypeHALFBRIDGEBASEDPERIPHERALDRIVERNumberofFunctions2OutputCharacteristics3-STATEOutputCurrentFlowDirectionSOURCEANDSINKOutputPeakCurrentLimit-Nom2AOutputPolarityTRUEPeakReflowTemperature(Cel)NOTAPPLICABLESeatedHeight-Max5.1mmSupplyCurrent-Max60mASupplyVoltage-Max36VSupplyVoltage-Min4.5VSupplyVoltage-Nom5VTime@PeakReflowTemperature-Max(s)NOTAPPLICABLEWidth7.62mmL293DvsL293DNEL293DL293DNEDatasheetL293DDatasheetL293DPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293DNEDatasheetL293EPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293DBasicsTheDeviceisamonolithicintegratedhighvoltage,highcurrentfourchanneldriverdesignedtoacceptstandardDTLorTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloads(suchasrelayssolenoides,DCandsteppingmotors)andswitchingpowertransistors.Tosimplifyuseastwobridgeseachpairofchannelsisequippedwithanenableinput.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogic,allowingoperationatalowervoltageandinternalclampdiodesareincluded.Thisdeviceissuitableforuseinswitchingapplicationsatfrequenciesupto5kHz.L293DNEBasicsL293DNEisactuallyL293D,NEisthepackage.L293Ddevicesarequadruplehigh-currenthalf-Hdrivers.TheL293Disdesignedtoprovidebidirectionaldrivecurrentsofupto600-mAatvoltagesfrom4.5Vto36V.Itsdesignedtodriveinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandbipolarsteppingmotors,aswellasotherhigh-current/high-voltageloadsinpositive-supplyapplications.Eachoutputisacompletetotem-poledrivecircuit,withaDarlingtontransistorsinkandapseudo-Darlingtonsource.Driversareenabledinpairs,withdrivers1and2enabledby1,2ENanddrivers3and4enabledby3,4EN.L293Darecharacterizedforoperationfrom0Cto70C.L293DvsL293DNEL293DNEL293DPbfreeCodeYesRohsCodeYesNoPartLifeCycleCodeActiveObsoleteIhsManufacturerTEXASINSTRUMENTSINCSGS-ATESCOMPONENTIELECTRONICISPAPartPackageCodeDIPPackageDescriptionDIP,DIP,DIP16,.3PinCount16ReachComplianceCodecompliantunknownECCNCodeEAR99HTSCode8542.39.00.01FactoryLeadTime1WeekSamacsysDescriptionQuadrupleHalf-HDriversL293DNE,4.5Vto36V,0Cto70Coperationtemps.Built-inProtectionsTRANSIENT;THERMALDriverNumberofBits4InputCharacteristicsSTANDARDInterfaceICTypeHALFBRIDGEBASEDPERIPHERALDRIVERJESD-30CodeR-PDIP-T16R-PDIP-T16JESD-609Codee4e0Length19.304mmNumberofFunctions2NumberofTerminals1616OperatingTemperature-Max70COperatingTemperature-MinOutputCharacteristics3-STATEOutputCurrentFlowDirectionSOURCEANDSINKOutputCurrent-Max1.2AOutputPeakCurrentLimit-Nom1.2AOutputPolarityTRUEPackageBodyMaterialPLASTIC/EPOXYPLASTIC/EPOXYPackageCodeDIPDIPPackageShapeRECTANGULARRECTANGULARPackageStyleIN-LINEIN-LINEPeakReflowTemperature(Cel)NOTSPECIFIEDQualificationStatusNotQualifiedNotQualifiedSeatedHeight-Max5.08mmSupplyCurrent-Max60mASupplyVoltage-Max7VSupplyVoltage-Min4.5VSupplyVoltage-Nom5VSupplyVoltage1-Max36VSupplyVoltage1-Min4.5VSupplyVoltage1-Nom24VSurfaceMountNONOTechnologyBIPOLARBIPOLARTemperatureGradeCOMMERCIALTerminalFinishNickel/Palladium/Gold(Ni/Pd/Au)Tin/Lead(Sn/Pb)TerminalFormTHROUGH-HOLETHROUGH-HOLETerminalPitch2.54mm2.54mmTerminalPositionDUALDUALTime@PeakReflowTemperature-Max(s)NOTSPECIFIEDTurn-offTime0.8sTurn-onTime0.4sWidth7.62mmBaseNumberMatches12PackageEquivalenceCodeDIP16,.3PowerSupplies5,24VL293DvsL293NL293DL293NDatasheetL293DDatasheetL293DPush-PullFourChannelDriversL293NDatasheetL293xQuadrupleHalfHDriversL293DBasicsTheDeviceisamonolithicintegratedhighvoltage,highcurrentfourchanneldriverdesignedtoacceptstandardDTLorTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloads(suchasrelayssolenoides,DCandsteppingmotors)andswitchingpowertransistors.Tosimplifyuseastwobridgeseachpairofchannelsisequippedwithanenableinput.Aseparatesupplyinputisprovidedforthelogic,allowingoperationatalowervoltageandinternalclampdiodesareincluded.Thisdeviceissuitableforuseinswitchingapplicationsatfrequenciesupto5kHz.L293NBasicsL293NbelongstotheL293xfamily,theyarequadruplehigh-currenthalf-Hdrivers.TheL293isdesignedtoprovidebidirectionaldrivecurrentsofupto1Aatvoltagesfrom4.5Vto36V.TheL293Disdesignedtoprovidebidirectionaldrivecurrentsofupto600-mAatvoltagesfrom4.5Vto36V.Bothdevicesaredesignedtodriveinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandbipolarsteppingmotors,aswellasotherhigh-current/high-voltageloadsinpositive-supplyapplications.Eachoutputisacompletetotem-poledrivecircuit,withaDarlingtontransistorsinkandapseudo-Darlingtonsource.Driversareenabledinpairs,withdrivers1and2enabledby1,2ENanddrivers3and4enabledby3,4EN.TheL293andL293Darecharacterizedforoperationfrom0Cto70C.L293DvsL293NL293DL293NRohsCodeNoYesPartLifeCycleCodeObsoleteObsoleteIhsManufacturerSGS-ATESCOMPONENTIELECTRONICISPATEXASINSTRUMENTSINCPackageDescriptionDIP,DIP16,.3DIP,ReachComplianceCodeunknownunknownJESD-30CodeR-PDIP-T16R-PDIP-T16JESD-609Codee0NumberofTerminals1616PackageBodyMaterialPLASTIC/EPOXYPLASTIC/EPOXYPackageCodeDIPDIPPackageEquivalenceCodeDIP16,.3PackageShapeRECTANGULARRECTANGULARPackageStyleIN-LINEIN-LINEPowerSupplies5,24VQualificationStatusNotQualifiedNotQualifiedSurfaceMountNONOTechnologyBIPOLARBIPOLARTerminalFinishTin/Lead(Sn/Pb)TerminalFormTHROUGH-HOLETHROUGH-HOLETerminalPitch2.54mm2.54mmTerminalPositionDUALDUALBaseNumberMatches21PbfreeCodeNoPartPackageCodeDIPPinCount16ECCNCodeEAR99HTSCode8542.39.00.01FactoryLeadTime1WeekBuilt-inProtectionsTRANSIENT;THERMALInterfaceICTypeHALFBRIDGEBASEDPERIPHERALDRIVERLength19.305mmNumberofFunctions2OperatingTemperature-Max70COperatingTemperature-MinOutputCurrentFlowDirectionSOURCEANDSINKOutputPeakCurrentLimit-Nom2APeakReflowTemperature(Cel)NOTSPECIFIEDSeatedHeight-Max5.08mmSupplyVoltage-Max7VSupplyVoltage-Min4.5VSupplyVoltage-Nom5VSupplyVoltage1-Max36VSupplyVoltage1-Min4.5VSupplyVoltage1-Nom24VTemperatureGradeCOMMERCIALTime@PeakReflowTemperature-Max(s)NOTSPECIFIEDWidth7.62mmFAQWhatisl293d?L293DICisadualH-bridgemotordriverIC.OneH-bridgeiscapabletodriveadcmotorinbidirection.L293DICisacurrentenhancingICastheoutputfromthesensorisnotabletodrivemotorsitselfsoL293Disusedforthispurpose.Whichisbetterl293dvsl298n?L293DDriversOperatesat4.5Vto36VwhereasL298NcanbeOperatesatupto46V.Maximum600mAcurrentcanbedrawnthroughbothchannelsofL293DwhereasL298NMotorDrivercandrawupto2Afrombothchannels.WhatistheuseofEnablepininl293d?L293DhasanenablefacilitywhichhelpsyouenabletheICoutputpins.Ifanenablepinissettologichigh,thenstateoftheinputsmatchesthestateoftheoutputs.Ifyoupullthislow,thentheoutputswillbeturnedoffregardlessoftheinputstates.HowmanyDCmotorscanbecontrolledbyanICl293d?TheL293Disa16-pinMotorDriverICwhichcancontroluptotwoDCmotorssimultaneously,inanydirection.HowdoIconnectmyArduinotol293d?Connect5VtoEnable1,Vss,andVsontheL293D.Connectdigitaloutputpins(wereusing6and7)toinput1andinput2ontheL293D.ConnectyourArduinosGNDtobothGNDpinsonthesamesideoftheL293D.Finally,connectoutput1andoutput2oftheL293Dtoyourmotorpins.WhatisHbridgeinl293d?AnH-BridgeCircuit.AnHbridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatallowsavoltagetobeappliedacrossaloadinanydirection.H-bridgecircuitsarefrequentlyusedinroboticsandmanyotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardbackward.WhatisthefunctionofHbridge?AnH-bridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatswitchesthepolarityofavoltageappliedtoaload.ThesecircuitsareoftenusedinroboticsandotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardsorbackwards.Whatisl293dmotordrivershield?L293DshieldisadriverboardbasedonL293IC,whichcandrive4DCmotorsand2stepperorServomotorsatthesametime.Eachchannelofthismodulehasthemaximumcurrentof1.2Aanddoesntworkifthevoltageismorethan25vorlessthan4.5v.HowdoIusethel293dmotordrivermodule?Connect5VtoEnable1,Vss,andVsontheL293D.Connectdigitaloutputpins(wereusing6and7)toinput1andinput2ontheL293D.ConnectyourArduinosGNDtobothGNDpinsonthesamesideoftheL293D.2N3904and2N2222arethetwomostpopularNPNbipolarjunctiontransistorsintheelectronicsmarket.Inaddition,2N3904and2N2222aresimilarinappearance.Therefore,somepeoplemayhavequestions:Whyis2N3904sopopularand2N2222isnotalwaysused?Ifyouarecuriousaboutwhichonetouse,orwhichisbetter,whichisbetter?Inthisblog,wewillcomparethechipcharacteristicsandpindiagramsofthesetwotransistors.Comparingtransistorsisnotextensive,becauseonlyafewusefulparametersareimportant.Thisisacomparisontableoftransistors,whichexplainsthemeaningofeverythinginthetable.CatalogIDifferencesbetween2N3904VS2N2222II2N3904NPNTransistorBasics2.1Specificationsof2N2222MotorDriverIC2.22N3904NPNTransistorPinoutsIII2N2222NPNTransistorBasics3.1Specificationsof2N2222MotorDriverIC3.22N2222NPNTransistorPinoutIDifferencesbetween2N3904VS2N22222N39042N2222TypeofBJTNPNNPNTypeofTransistorBipolarJunctionTransistor(BJT)BipolarJunctionTransistor(BJT)Maximumvoltagethatthecollectorofthetransistorcanhandle(calledthecollector-emittervoltage,VCEO)200mA1AMaximumcurrentthatthetransistorcanhandlefromtheemittertothecollector(calledcollectorcurrent,Ic)40V40VBoththe2N3904and2N2222areidenticalintermsofhandlingcollector-to-emittervoltages,andbothcanhandlevoltagesofupto40V.Insimpleterms,thiseffectivelymeansthat40Visthemaximumamountofvoltagethatthetransistorcanhandleminusthevoltagedropacrosstheloadconnectedtothecollector.Forexample,supposeweapply70Vtothecollectorofthetransistorandtheloadwillconsume20V,thismeansthattheremainingvoltagewillfallonthetransistorwhichwillbe70V-20V=50V.thiswouldnotbeacceptablebecauseitexceedsthemaximumVCEO.sincethe2N3904and2N2222havethesamemaximumVCEOvoltage,thereisnodifferenceinthisregard.Wheretheydifferisthatthe2N2222canhandlelargeroperatingcollectorcurrents.Collectorcurrentistheamplifiedcurrentthatflowsfromtheemittertothecollectortopowertheloadthatmaybeconnectedtothetransistor.2N3904canhandleupto200mA(milliamperes)ofcurrentflowingfromtheemittertothecollectorterminal.A2N2222canhandleupto5timesthatamountofcurrent,asitcanhandleupto1A(amps)ofcurrentflowfromemittertocollectortopoweraload.II2N3904NPNTransistorBasics2N3904NPNTransistorThe2N3904isacommonNPNbipolarjunctiontransistorusedforgeneralpurposelowpoweramplificationorswitchingapplications.Itisdesignedforlowcurrentandlowpower,mediumvoltageoperationatmoderatespeeds.2.1Specificationsof2N2222MotorDriverICCategoryDiscreteSemiconductorProductsTransistors-Bipolar(BJT)-SingleMfrONSemiconductorSeries-PackageTrayPartStatusObsoleteTransistorTypeNPNVceSaturation(Max)@Ib,Ic300mV@5mA,50mACurrent-CollectorCutoff(Max)50nADCCurrentGain(hFE)(Min)@Ic,Vce100@10mA,1VFrequencyTransition300MHzOperatingTemperature-55C~150C(TJ)MountingTypeThroughHolePackage/CaseTO-226-3,TO-92-3(TO-226AA)Current-Collector(Ic)(Max)200mAVoltage-CollectorEmitterBreakdown(Max)40VPowerMax625mWManufacturerONSemiconductorProductCategoryBipolarTransistorsBJTMountingStyleThroughHolePackage/CaseTO-92-3TransistorPolarityNPNConfigurationSingleCollector-EmitterVoltageVCEOMax40VCollector-BaseVoltageVCBO60VEmitter-BaseVoltageVEBO6VCollector-EmitterSaturationVoltage0.3VMaximumDCCollectorCurrent0.2APd-PowerDissipation625MwGainBandwidthProductfT270MHzMinimumOperatingTemperature-65CMaximumOperatingTemperature+150CHeight5.33mmLength5.2mmTechnologySiWidth4.19mmBrandONSemiconductorContinuousCollectorCurrent0.2ADCCollector/BaseGainhfeMin60ProductTypeBJTs-BipolarTransistorsSubcategoryTransistorsBJTs-BipolarTransistors2.22N3904NPNTransistorPinoutsPinNumberPinNameDescription1EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor3CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector**Readthisdetailedarticletoknowmoreabout2N3904:2N3904Transistor:Datasheet,Equivalent,Pinout[Video]III2N2222NPNTransistorBasics2N3904NPNTransistorThe2N2222isacommonNPNbipolarjunctiontransistor(BJT)usedforgeneralpurposelowpoweramplificationorswitchingapplications.Itisdesignedforlowtomediumcurrent,lowpower,andmediumvoltageoperationatmoderatespeeds.ItoriginallyusedTO-18metalcansasshowninthefigure.The2N2222isconsideredaverycommontransistorandisusedasanexampleofanNPNtransistor.Itisoftenusedasasmallsignaltransistoranditisstillasmallgeneralpurposetransistorthatendures.3.1Specificationsof2N2222MotorDriverICCurrentCollectorCutoffMax10nA(ICBO)DCCurrentGainhFEMinIcVce100@150mA,10VPowerMax500mWFrequencyTransition300MHzMountingTypeThroughHolePackageCaseTO-206AA,TO-18-3MetalCanSupplierDevicePackageTO-18MountingStyleThroughHoleTransistorPolarityNPNConfigurationSingleCollectorEmitterVoltageVCEOMax40VCollectorBaseVoltageVCBO75VEmitterBaseVoltageVEBO6VCollectorEmitterSaturationVoltage1VMaximumDCCollectorCurrent0.8AGainBandwidthProductfT300MHzMaximumOperatingTemperature+150CDCCollectorBaseGainhfeMin35MinimumOperatingTemperature-65CPdPowerDissipation0.4WPartAliasesBK3.22N2222NPNTransistorPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor2CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter**Readthisdetailedblogtoknowmoreabout2N2222:2N2222NPNTransistor:Pinout,Datasheet,Circuit[FAQ]

IHLP3232DZER6R8M01-VISHAY

ThisisanintroductionarticletothecollectionofLM2576anditssimilarmodels.CatalogLM2576vsLM2596LM2576vsLM2575LM2576vsLM2577LM2576vsLM7805LM2576vsLM2676FAQLM2576vsLM2596LM2576andLM2596datasheet:LM2576DatasheetLM2576xxSeriesSIMPLESWITCHER3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.E)LM2596DatasheetLM2596SIMPLESWITCHERPowerConverter150-kHz3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.E)LM2576FeaturesNewproductavailable:LMR3363036-V,3-A,400-kHzsynchronousconverter3.3-V,5-V,12-V,15-V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.23Vto37V(57VforHVversion)4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsSpecified3-AoutputcurrentWideinputvoltagerange:40VUpto60VforHVversionRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponents52-kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorTTL-shutdowncapability,low-powerstandbymodeHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrentlimitprotectionCreateaCustomDesignwithWEBENCHToolsLM2596Features3.3-V,5-V,12-V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.2-Vto37-V4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsAvailableinTO-220andTO-263packages3-AoutputloadcurrentInputvoltagerangeupto40VRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponentsExcellentlineandloadregulationspecifications150-kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorTTLshutdowncapabilityLowpowerstandbymode,IQ,typically80AHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrent-limitprotectionCreateacustomdesignusingtheLM2596withtheWEBENCHPowerDesignerLM2576Basics:TheLM2576seriesofregulatorsaremonolithicintegratedcircuitsthatprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator,capableofdriving3-Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Thesedevicesareavailableinfixedoutputvoltagesof3.3V,5V,12V,15V,andanadjustableoutputversion.LM2596Basics:TheLM2596seriesofregulatorsaremonolithicintegratedcircuitsthatprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator,capableofdrivinga3-Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Thesedevicesareavailableinfixedoutputvoltagesof3.3V,5V,12V,andanadjustableoutputversion.Ifyoukeeplookingonthedatasheet,youwillfindthemaindifferencebetweenthemseemstobe:TheLM2596seriesoperatesataswitchingfrequencyof150kHz,thusallowingsmallersizedfiltercomponentsthanwhatwouldberequiredwithlowerfrequencyswitchingregulators.Thisisasopposedtothe52-kHzFixed-FrequencyInternalOscillatoroftheLM2576.Thehigherinternalfrequencyallowstheuseofasmallerinductorandcapacitorontheoutputreducesthesizeandweightofyourpassives.TheneweralsoLM2596alsohavealowpoweridlemode.However,theLM2576hasavariantavailableforhigherinputvoltages.LM2576vsLM2575LM2576andLM2575datasheet:LM2576DatasheetLM2576xxSeriesSIMPLESWITCHER3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.E)LM2575DatasheetLM25751-ASimpleStep-DownSwitchingVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.F)LM2576FeaturesNewproductavailable:LMR3363036-V,3-A,400-kHzsynchronousconverter3.3-V,5-V,12-V,15-V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.23Vto37V(57VforHVversion)4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsSpecified3-AoutputcurrentWideinputvoltagerange:40VUpto60VforHVversionRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponents52-kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorTTL-shutdowncapability,low-powerstandbymodeHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrentlimitprotectionCreateaCustomDesignwithWEBENCHToolsLM2575FeaturesAdjustableWithaRangeof1.23Vto37Vandt4%Regulation(Max)OverLine,Load,andTemperatureConditionsSpecified1-AOutputCurrentWideInputVoltageRange4.75Vto40VUsesReadilyAvailableStandardInductors52-kHz(Typical)Fixed-FrequencyInternalOscillatorTTLShutdownCapabilityWith50-pA(Typical)StandbyCurrentHighEfficiency...asHighas88%(Typical)ThermalShutdownandCurrent-LimitProtectionWithCycle-by-CycleCurrentLimitingFortheFullOfferingofVoltages(IncludingFixed-OutputOptions)andPackages(IncludingTO-263),SeeTL2575DataSheet,SLVS638LM2576LM2575BasicsTheLM2575/6seriesswitchingregulatorsaremonolithicintegratedcircuitsdesignedforuseinbuckorbuck/boostregulatorapplicationsrequiringaccurateoutputvoltagesovercombinedvariationsofline,loadandtemperature.Thisuniqueseriesgreatlysimplifiesswitchingpowersupplydesign.TheLM2575hasamaximumoutputcurrentof1AandtheLM2576isratedfor3A.TheLM2575/6seriesminiconvertersincludeaswitchingregulatorandcompensationnetworkallwithinthesamepackage.Justaddachoke,catchdiodeandtwocapacitorstoobtainanefficientDC-to-DCconverter.ThecurrentlimitandthermalshutdownfeaturesoftheLM2575/6seriesfullyprotectthedeviceagainstoverstressconditions.TheLM2575/6seriesoffersanalternativetopopular3terminallinearregulatorsbyprovidinghigherefficiencywithreducedheatsinksize.Inmanyapplicationsaheatsinkwillnotberequired.LM2576vsLM2577LM2576andLM2577Datasheet:LM2576DatasheetLM2576xxSeriesSIMPLESWITCHER3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.E)LM2577DatasheetLM1577/LM2577SIMPLESWITCHERStep-UpVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.D)LM2576FeaturesNewproductavailable:LMR3363036-V,3-A,400-kHzsynchronousconverter3.3-V,5-V,12-V,15-V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.23Vto37V(57VforHVversion)4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsSpecified3-AoutputcurrentWideinputvoltagerange:40VUpto60VforHVversionRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponents52-kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorTTL-shutdowncapability,low-powerstandbymodeHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrentlimitprotectionCreateaCustomDesignwithWEBENCHToolsLM2577FeaturesRequiresFewExternalComponentsNPNOutputSwitches3.0A,canStandoff65VWideInputVoltageRange:3.5Vto40VCurrent-modeOperationforImprovedTransientResponse,LineRegulation,andCurrentLimit52kHzInternalOscillatorSoft-startFunctionReducesIn-rushCurrentDuringStart-upOutputSwitchProtectedbyCurrentLimit,Under-voltageLockout,andThermalShutdownLM2576LM2577Basics:TheLM2576includesaswitch,voltagereferenceandfeedbackpathforuseineitherthebuckorthenegativeboostcircuits.Ithasacapacityof3A,andamaximumsupplyvoltageof40V,or60Vinthehigh-voltageLM2576HVversion.Feedbackresistorsmaybeincludedforoutputvoltagesof3.3,5.0,12or15V.The-ADJversionusesexternalfeedbackresistorsandcanbeadjustedtoanyoutputvoltage.Theswitchsaturationvoltageistypically1.4Vandisresponsibleformostofthepowerdissipation.Aheatsinkmayberequired,butthethermaldissipationisinternallylimited.Theinputvoltageshouldbe12Vormore.Thequiescentcurrentistypically5mA,or50Ainstandby(on/offhigh).TheLM2577issimilartotheLM2576,butisusedintheboostcircuit,whereitswitchestheinputtoground.Oneapplicationisproducing+12Vfroma+5Vsupply.IthasanRCcompensationnetworkthatisnotnecessarywiththeLM2576.Itwillworkdownto3.5Vinputvoltage(unliketheLM2576),andtheswitchcanstand65V.LiketheLM2576,itsoscillatorfrequencyisnominally52kHz,andtheswitchtransistorcancarry3A.Alargeoutputcapacitorisnecessaryforloopstability.NotethatVin,pin5,powersthechip,whileSwitch,pin4,istheinputtotheswitch.LM2576vsLM7805LM2576andLM7805Datasheet:LM2576DatasheetLM2576xxSeriesSIMPLESWITCHER3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.E)LM7805DatasheetLM340,LM340AandLM7805FamilyWideVIN1.5-AFixedVoltageRegulatorsdatasheet(Rev.L)LM2576FeaturesNewproductavailable:LMR3363036-V,3-A,400-kHzsynchronousconverter3.3-V,5-V,12-V,15-V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.23Vto37V(57VforHVversion)4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsSpecified3-AoutputcurrentWideinputvoltagerange:40VUpto60VforHVversionRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponents52-kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorTTL-shutdowncapability,low-powerstandbymodeHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrentlimitprotectionCreateaCustomDesignwithWEBENCHToolsLM7805FeaturesOutputCurrentupto1.5AAvailableinFixed5-V,12-V,and15-VOptionsInternalThermalOverload,Short-CircuitandSOAProtectionAvailableinSpace-SavingSOT-223PackageOutputCapacitanceNotRequiredforStabilityLM2576LM7805Basics:Before3.3Vcomponentsbecamepopular,wewerelimitedto5Vpoweredmicrocontrollers(MCUs)andintegratedcircuits(ICs).LM7805wasapopularpartnumberbackthen,asitwasasimple5Vlinearvoltageregulator.Infact,itssimplicityisquiteelegant,makingitstillapopularchoicetoday.When3.3Vbecameamainstreamoperatingvoltage,LM1117-33servedasafairlyefficientlinearvoltageregulator.Manypeoplemadearookiemistakewhendealingwiththelinearvoltageregulatorandacceptedthecurrentratingasabsolute.ThiswasamajorproblembecausetheLM7805voltageregulatorisspecifiedasa5V,1.5A.Butthatdoesntmeanthelinearregulatorcanhandlethisvoltagewithoutwearingdownatbest,orburningupintheprocess.Atleastthreemoreparametersmustbeconsideredbeforeselectingalinearvoltageregulator.Thedissipatedpowerleveliscalculatedbyconsideringthedifferencebetweentheinputandoutputvoltage;thenyoumultiplythisfigurewiththeloadcurrent.Ifyoureregulating12Vto5V,andyourembeddedsystemconsumes100mA,thenthedissipatedpowerwillbe0.7W.Withthisinmind,weshouldnotethattheLM7805linearregulatorcanoperateattemperaturesupto125C.Beyondthispoint,youllbegintoseeundesirableeventssuchasmeltingandburning.ButatypicalLM7805inaTO-220packagehasatemperatureresistanceof65C/W.Thismeansthatforevery1W,youwillseeanincreaseof65Contopoftheenvironmentsambienttemperature.Insomeregions,temperaturesaveragearound35C,sotheLM7805wouldberunningat100Cslightlyshortofitsallowedmaximumtemperature,yetyouhavelessthan10%oftheratedmaximumcurrentof1.5A.TheLM2576,apopularswitchingregulatorthatrunsat75%efficiencywhenregulatingat3.3V.Thisproducesafractionoftheheatthatyoumightseefromacomparablelinearregulator,makingitidealforapplicationsthatneedtoregulatefromahighvoltagetoalowone.Itsalsosuitableforembeddedsystemswhereyoureroutinelyrunningatahighcapacity.LM2576vsLM2676LM2576andLM2676Datasheet:LM2576DatasheetLM2576xxSeriesSIMPLESWITCHER3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.E)LM2676DatasheetLM2676SIMPLESWITCHERHighEfficiency3-AStep-DownVoltageRegulatordatasheet(Rev.L)LM2576FeaturesNewproductavailable:LMR3363036-V,3-A,400-kHzsynchronousconverter3.3-V,5-V,12-V,15-V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.23Vto37V(57VforHVversion)4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsSpecified3-AoutputcurrentWideinputvoltagerange:40VUpto60VforHVversionRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponents52-kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorTTL-shutdowncapability,low-powerstandbymodeHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrentlimitprotectionCreateaCustomDesignwithWEBENCHToolsLM2676FeaturesNewproductavailable:LMR3363036-V,3-A,400-kHzsynchronousconverterEfficiencyupto94%Simpleandeasytodesignwith(usingoff-the-shelfexternalcomponents)150-mDMOSoutputswitch3.3-V,5-V,12-VFixedoutputandadjustable(1.2Vto37V)versions50-AStandbycurrentwhenswitchedOFF2%MaximumoutputtoleranceoverfulllineandloadconditionsWideinputvoltagerange:8Vto40V260-KHzFixedfrequencyinternaloscillator40to125COperatingjunctiontemperaturerangeLM2576LM2676Basics:TheLM2576seriesofregulatorsaremonolithicintegratedcircuitsthatprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator,capableofdriving3-Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Thesedevicesareavailableinfixedoutputvoltagesof3.3V,5V,12V,15V,andanadjustableoutputversion.TheLM2676seriesofregulatorsaremonolithicintegratedcircuitswhichprovidealloftheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulatorcapableofdrivingupto3-Aloadswithexcellentlineandloadregulationcharacteristics.Highefficiency(90%)isobtainedthroughtheuseofalowONresistanceDMOSpowerswitch.Theseriesconsistsoffixedoutputvoltagesof3.3-V,5-V,and12-Vandanadjustableoutputversion.FAQWhereisLM2576used?LM2576isusuallyusedasavoltagestabilizingdevicewhentheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceislargeandtheoutputcurrentisalsolarge.Becauseitisaswitchingregulator,ithasahigherconversionefficiencyandlowheatgenerationthanalinearregulator.WhatsthedifferencebetweenLM2576T-ADJandLM2576S-ADJ?LM2576T-ADJisthepackageofTO-220,LM2576S-ADJisthepackageofTO-263-5,thereisnodifferenceintheirfunctions.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM2940andLM2576?Whichcircuitaretheyapplicableto?LM2940isalow-dropoutlinearstabilizedintegratedcircuit.Thelinearstabilizedpowersupplyischaracterizedbyarelativelysimplecircuit,highprecision,andsmallripplecoefficient.Itissuitableforprecisionpowersupplieswithhighvoltagerequirements.ThedisadvantageisthattheefficiencyisverylowandtheoutputThecurrentisrelativelysmall(relativetotheswitchingpowersupply)LM2576isaswitchingpowersupplyintegratedcircuit.Switchingpowersupply,thecircuitismorecomplicated,buttheoutputcurrentislarge,theefficiencyishigh,thedisadvantageisthattheaccuracyislowerandtheripplecoefficientislarger.WhydoswitchingpowersupplychipsLM2576andLM2596havediodes,inductorsandcapacitorsbehindtheoutputpins?ThefunctionofthediodeandtheinductanceisthattheoutputcurrentcanbecontinuouswhentheLM25XXisintheoffstate,andthefunctionofthecapacitoristopreventtheoutputvoltagefromsuddenchangeswhentheLM25XXisturnedonandoff.Infact,itisfiltering.WhythehighertheswitchingfrequencyofLM2576andLM2596,thesmallertheoutputinductanceandcapacitancevalue?Quitesimply,thecapacitivereactanceofacapacitordecreasesasthefrequencyincreases,andtheinductanceofaninductorincreasesasthefrequencyincreases.Thatistosay,theeffectofusinganinductanceof33uHinthecaseof150Khzisbasicallythesameastheeffectofusinganinductanceof100uHinthecaseof52khz,andtheprincipleofcapacitanceisthesame.LM2596isanupgradedversionofLM2576.ButLM2576alsohastheadvantageoflessswitchinglossandlessinterference.TheLM2576seriesofmonolithicintegratedcircuitsprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator.LM2576seriesarecapableofdrivinga3Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Theregulatorsaresimpletousebecausetheyrequireaminimumnumberofexternalcomponentsandincludeinternalfrequencycompensationandafixed-frequencyoscillator.CatalogLM2576DescriptionLM2576PinoutLM2576FeaturesLM2576ApplicationsLM2576CircuitDiagramLM2576PackageLM2576ParametersElectricalCharacteristics:AllOutputVoltageVersionsLM2576ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityLM2576DescriptionTheLM2576seriesofmonolithicintegratedcircuitsprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator.Fixedversionsareavailablewitha3.3V,5V,or12Vfixedoutput.Adjustableversionshaveanoutputvoltagerangefrom1.23Vto37V.Bothversionsarecapableofdrivinga3Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Theseregulatorsaresimpletousebecausetheyrequireaminimumnumberofexternalcomponentsandincludeinternalfrequencycompensationandafixed-frequencyoscillator.TheLM2576seriesoffersahighefficiencyreplacementforpopularthree-terminaladjustablelinearregulators.Itsubstantiallyreducesthesizeoftheheatsink,andinmanycasesnoheatsinkisrequired.AstandardseriesofinductorsavailablefromseveraldifferentmanufacturesareidealforusewiththeLM2576series.Thisfeaturegreatlysimplifiesthedesignofswitch-modepowersupplies.Thefeedbackvoltageisguaranteedto2%toleranceforadjustableversions,andtheoutputvoltageisguaranteedto3%forfixedversions,withinspecifiedinputvoltagesandoutputloadconditions.Theoscillatorfrequencyisguaranteedto10%.externalshutdownisincluded,featuringlessthan200Astandbycurrent.Theoutputswitchincludescycle-by-cyclecurrentlimitingandthermalshutdownforfullprotectionunderfaultconditions.LM2576PinoutPinFunctionDecriptionSymbolDescription1VINThispinisthepositiveinputsupplyfortheLM2576step-downswitchingregulator.Inordertominimizevoltagetransientsandtosupplytheswitchingcurrentsneededbytheregulator,asuitableinputbypasscapacitormustbepresent.2OutputThisistheemitteroftheinternalswitch.ThesaturationvoltageVastofthisoutputswitchistypically1.5V.itshouldbekeptinmindthatthePCBareaconnectedtothispinshouldbekepttoaminimuminordertominimizecouplingtosensitivecircuitry.3GndCircuitgroundpin.Seetheinformationabouttheprintedcircuitboardlayout.4FeedbackThispinsensesregualtedoutputvoltagetocompletethefeedbackloop.ThssignalisdividedbytheinternalresistordividernetworkR2,R1andappliedtothenon-invertinginputoftheinternalerroramplifier.IntheAdjustableversionoftheLM2576switchingregualtorthispinisthedirectinputpftheerroramplifierandtheresistornetworkR2,R1isconnectedexternallytoallowprogrammingoftheoutputvoltage.5ON/OFFItallowstheswitchingregulatorcircuittobeshutdownusinglogiclevelsignals,thusdroppingthetotalinputsupplycurrenttoapproximately80mA.Thethresholdvoltageistypically1.4V.Applyingavoltageabovethisvalue(upto+Vin)shutstheregulatoroff.Ifthevoltageappliedtothispinislowerthan1.4Vorifthispinisleftopen,theregualtorwillbeintheoncondition.LM2576Features3V,5V,12V,15V,andadjustableoutputversionsAdjustableversionoutputvoltagerange:1.23Vto37V(57VforHVversion)4%maximumoverlineandloadconditionsSpecified3AoutputcurrentWideinputvoltagerange:4Vto40VRequiresonlyfourexternalcomponents52kHzFixed-frequencyinternaloscillatorLow-powerstandbymodeIQtypically200AHighefficiencyUsesreadilyavailablestandardinductorsThermalshutdownandcurrentlimitprotection100%electricalthermallimitburn-inLM2576ApplicationsSimplehigh-efficiencystep-down(buck)regulatorEfficientpre-regulatorforlinearregulatorsOn-cardswitchingregulatorsPositivetonegativeconverter(invertingBuck-Boost)IsolatedFlybackConverterusingminimumnumberofexternalcomponentsNegativeBoostConverterLM2576CircuitDiagramLM2576PackageLM2576ParametersVin(Min)(V)4Vin(Max)(V)40Vout(Min)(V)3.3Vout(Max)(V)37Iout(Max)(A)3Iq(Typ)(mA)5Switchingfrequency(Min)(kHz)42Switchingfrequency(Max)(kHz)63FeaturesEnable,OverCurrentProtectionOperatingtemperaturerange(C)-40to125RatingCatalogApprox.price(US$)1ku|1.05Regulatedoutputs(#)1PinNumber5Maximumcurrent3AElectricalCharacteristics:AllOutputVoltageVersionsLM2576ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetLM2576DatasheetFAQWhereisLM2576used?LM2576isusuallyusedasavoltagestabilizingdevicewhentheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceislargeandtheoutputcurrentisalsolarge.Becauseitisaswitchingregulator,ithasahigherconversionefficiencyandlowheatgenerationthanalinearregulator.WhatsthedifferencebetweenLM2576T-ADJandLM2576S-ADJ?LM2576T-ADJisthepackageofTO-220,LM2576S-ADJisthepackageofTO-263-5,thereisnodifferenceintheirfunctions.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM2940andLM2576?Whichcircuitaretheyapplicableto?LM2940isalow-dropoutlinearstabilizedintegratedcircuit.Thelinearstabilizedpowersupplyischaracterizedbyarelativelysimplecircuit,highprecision,andsmallripplecoefficient.Itissuitableforprecisionpowersupplieswithhighvoltagerequirements.ThedisadvantageisthattheefficiencyisverylowandtheoutputThecurrentisrelativelysmall(relativetotheswitchingpowersupply)LM2576isaswitchingpowersupplyintegratedcircuit.Switchingpowersupply,thecircuitismorecomplicated,buttheoutputcurrentislarge,theefficiencyishigh,thedisadvantageisthattheaccuracyislowerandtheripplecoefficientislarger.WhydoswitchingpowersupplychipsLM2576andLM2596havediodes,inductorsandcapacitorsbehindtheoutputpins?ThefunctionofthediodeandtheinductanceisthattheoutputcurrentcanbecontinuouswhentheLM25XXisintheoffstate,andthefunctionofthecapacitoristopreventtheoutputvoltagefromsuddenchangeswhentheLM25XXisturnedonandoff.Infact,itisfiltering.WhythehighertheswitchingfrequencyofLM2576andLM2596,thesmallertheoutputinductanceandcapacitancevalue?Quitesimply,thecapacitivereactanceofacapacitordecreasesasthefrequencyincreases,andtheinductanceofaninductorincreasesasthefrequencyincreases.Thatistosay,theeffectofusinganinductanceof33uHinthecaseof150Khzisbasicallythesameastheeffectofusinganinductanceof100uHinthecaseof52khz,andtheprincipleofcapacitanceisthesame.LM2596isanupgradedversionofLM2576.ButLM2576alsohastheadvantageoflessswitchinglossandlessinterference.

IHLP3232DZER6R8M01-VISHAY

LM2904isadualoperationalamplifier.ThisblogintroducestheLM2904dualoperationalamplifieraboutitspinout,features,applications,anditsuses,etc.CatalogLM2904DescriptionLM2904PinoutLM2904FeaturesLM2904ParameterWheretoUseLM2904LM2904ApplicationLM2904PackageLM2904ManufacturerComponentDatasheetLM2904DescriptionLM2904isadualoperatioalamplifier.Ithastwobuilt-ininternalamplifiers,speciallydesignedtooperatewithasinglepowersupply.Theycanalsobeoperatedfromdividedpowersupplies.Itnormallyoperatesona3.3Vpowersupply,whichisthemostcommonsupplyfordigitalsystems.LM2904hasdifferentfeaturesthatmakeitmoreefficientandpopularonthemarket.Thesefeaturesincludelargerangesofpowersupply,widebandwidth,etc.WecanuseLM-2904whiledesigningactivefilters,transduceramplifiers,DCblocks,etc.LM2904PinoutLM2904LM2904PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1OUTPUTAOutputofOp-AmpA2InvertingInputAInvertingInputofOp-AmpA3Non-InvertingInputANon-InvertingInputofOp-AmpA4GNDGroundorNegativeSupplyVoltage5Non-InvertingInputBNon-InvertingInputofOp-AmpB6InvertingInputBInvertingInputofOp-AmpB7OUTPUTBOutputofOp-AmpB8VCCPositiveSupplyVoltageLM2904FeaturesSupplyVoltage:3Vto26VOperatingSupplyCurrent:250uAOutputCurrentperChannel:30mACMRR-CommonModeRejectionRatio:70dBIb-InputBiasCurrent:250nAVos-InputOffsetVoltage:7mVPSRR-PowerSupplyRejectionRatio:50dBLargeDCVoltageGain:100dBWideBandwidth(UnityGain):1MHzAvailablein8-BumpDSBGAChip-SizedPackageLM2904ParameterManufacturer:TexasInstrumentsProductCategory:OperationalAmplifiers-OpAmpsRoHS:DetailsSeries:LM2904AmplifierType:HighGainAmplifierOperatingSupplyCurrent:350uAMinimumOperatingTemperature:-40CMaximumOperatingTemperature:+125CMountingStyle:ThroughHolePackage/Case:PDIP-8Packaging:TubeHeight:4.57mmLength:9.81mmWidth:6.35mmBrand:TexasInstrumentsOperatingSupplyVoltage:3Vto26V,+/-1.5Vto+/-13VProductType:OpAmps-OperationalAmplifiersFactoryPackQuantity:50Subcategory:AmplifierICsNumberofChannels:2ChannelGBP-GainBandwidthProduct:700kHzCMRR-CommonModeRejectionRatio:65dBto80dBIb-InputBiasCurrent:250nAVos-InputOffsetVoltage:7mVProduct:OperationalAmplifiersSupplyType:Single,DualDualSupplyVoltage:+/-3V,+/-5V,+/-9V,+/-12VMaximumDualSupplyVoltage:+/-13VMinimumDualSupplyVoltage:+/-1.5VUnitWeight:0.015535ozSR-SlewRate:0.3V/usShutdown:NoShutdownen-InputVoltageNoiseDensity:40nV/sqrtHzOutputCurrentperChannel:30mAVcm-CommonModeVoltage:NegativeRailtoPositiveRail-1.5VSupplyVoltage-Max:26VSupplyVoltage-Min:3VVoltageGaindB:100dBTechnology:BipolarInputType:Rail-to-RailFeatures:CostOptimizedWheretoUseLM2904TheLM2904isadualpackageversionofthecommonlyusedLM741Op-Amp,bothofwhichhavethesameelectricalcharacteristics.ThisOp-Ampdoesnothavealatch-upproblemandisthereforeidealforuseinvoltagefollowerapplications.Italsohasbuilt-ininternalfrequencycompensationandshort-circuitprotectionandthereforerequiresaminimumnumberofcomponentstobereadyforuse.TheseICsarecommonlyfoundinsideDVDplayersandguitaramplifiersduetothesecharacteristics.LM2904ICconsumesverylowcurrent.SoifyourelookingforanOp-ampICwithallofthesefeatures,thisICmightbetherightchoiceforyou.LM2904ApplicationMerchantnetworkandserverpowersupplyunitsMulti-functionprintersPowersuppliesandmobilechargersMotorcontrol:ACinduction,brushedDC,brushlessDC,high-voltage,low-voltage,permanentmagnet,andsteppermotorDesktopPCandmotherboardIndoorandoutdoorairconditionersWashers,dryers,andrefrigeratorsACinverters,stringinverters,centralinverters,andvoltagefrequencydrivesUninterruptiblepowersuppliesProgrammablelogiccontrollersElectronicpoint-of-salesystemsLM2904PackageLM2904ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDadasheetLM2904Datasheet

TheBC548isaNPNbipolarjunctiontransistor.BC548isanothergeneralpurposewidelyusedtransistorthatcanbeeasilyaccessedfromreputableelectroniccomponentsstore,thistransistoralsohaslotsofgoodfeaturesonthebasisofwhichitcanbeusedintheirelectroniccircuit,itcanhandleamaximumcurrentof500mAwhichissufficienttodrivemanyothercomponentssuchasICS,othertransistors,circuitportions,relays,LEDs,etc.Themaxcollectordissipationofthedeviceis625milliWatt,whichisanothergoodfeaturetouseasasmallamplifier.ThisbloggivesyouabasicoverviewoftheBC548transistor,includingitspindescriptions,featuresandspecifications,alternativeproducts,etc.,tohelpyouquicklyunderstandwhatBC548isallabout.Wellbegladtofindthatthisblogcanbeusefulforpeoplewholoveelectroniccomponents.CatalogBC548PinoutBC548AdvantageBC548FeaturesandSpecificationsBC548ApplicationBC548asAmplifierBC548asSwitchBC548ReplacementandEquivalentBC548ComplementaryPairsBC548EquivalentTransistorsHowtoSafelyLongRunBC548inCircuitWheretoUseBC548ComponentDatasheetFAQBC548PinoutTheBC548issuppliedinastandardTO-923-pinpackage.Theassignmentoftransistorelements(b,c,e)toleads,i.e.thepinout,usesthesameconventionusedbysome-butnotall-otherTO-92devices.Asviewedinthetop-rightimage,goingfromlefttoright,thepinoutisasfollows:lead1(leftindiagram)isthecollector,lead2isthebase,lead3istheemitter.Sometimesthemiddlepinissuppliedbenttoformatriangleofleads(asfoundinTO-18casetransistorsand,forexample,theZTX108-L)tomatchthepinoutoftheBC108moreexactly.PinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorTheflowofcurrentwillbethroughthecollectorterminal.ItisdentedbyC2BaseThispincontrolsthetransistorbiasing.ItisdenotedbyB3EmitterThecurrentsuppliesoutthroughtheemitterterminalItisdenotedbyEBC548AdvantageBC548NPNTransistorBC548isaNPNtransistorsothecollectorandemitterwillbeleftopen(Reversebiased)whenthebasepinisheldatgroundandwillbeclosed(Forwardbiased)whenasignalisprovidedtobasepin.BC548hasagainvalueof110to800,thisvaluedeterminestheamplificationcapacityofthetransistor.ThemaximumamountofcurrentthatcouldflowthroughtheCollectorpinis500mA,hencewecannotconnectloadsthatconsumemorethan500mAusingthistransistor.Tobiasatransistorwehavetosupplycurrenttobasepin,thiscurrent(IB)shouldbelimitedto5mA.Whenthistransistorisfullybiased,itcanallowamaximumof500mAtoflowacrossthecollectorandemitter.ThisstageiscalledSaturationRegionandthetypicalvoltageallowedacrosstheCollector-Emitter(VCE)orBase-Emitter(VBE)couldbe200and900mVrespectively.Whenbasecurrentisremovedthetransistorbecomesfullyoff,thisstageiscalledastheCut-offRegionandtheBaseEmittervoltagecouldbearound660mV.BC548FeaturesandSpecificationsPackageType:TO-92TransistorType:NPNMaxCollectorCurrent(IC):500mA(Continuous)MaxCollector-EmitterVoltage(VCE):30VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):30VMaxEmitter-BaseVoltage(VEBO):5VMaxCollectorDissipation(Pc):625miliWattMaxTransitionFrequency(fT):150MHzMinimumMaximumDCCurrentGain(hFE):110800MaxStorageOperatingtemperatureShouldBe:-55to+150CentigradeTheBC548partnumberisassignedbyProElectron,whichallowsmanymanufacturerstoofferelectricallyandphysicallyinterchangeablepartsunderoneidentification.DevicesregisteredtothisProElectronnumbermusthavethefollowingminimumperformancecharacteristics:Breakdownvoltage,collector-to-emitterwithbaseopen-circuitVCEO=30V(seebelow)RatedcontinuouscollectorcurrentIC=100mA(FairchildsBC548atonetimehadahigherrating)RatedtotalpowerdissipationPtotal=500mW(somemanufacturersmayspecify625mW-seebelow)Transitionfrequency(gain-bandwidthproduct)ft=150MHzminimum(300MHztypical)BC548ApplicationSensorCircuitsAudioPreamplifiersAudioAmplifierStagesSwitchingLoadsunder500mADarlingtonPairsBC548asAmplifierATransistorsactsasanAmplifierwhenoperatinginActiveRegion.Itcanamplifypower,voltageandcurrentatdifferentconfigurations.SomeoftheconfigurationsusedinamplifiercircuitsareCommonemitteramplifierCommoncollectoramplifierCommonbaseamplifierOftheabovetypescommonemittertypeisthepopularandmostlyusedconfiguration.WhenusedasanAmplifiertheDCcurrentgainoftheTransistorcanbecalculatedbyusingthebelowformulaeDCCurrentGain=CollectorCurrent(IC)/BaseCurrent(IB)BC548asSwitchTheregionresponsibleforatransistortoworkasaswitchareSaturationRegionandtheCut-offRegion.Whenweapplyahighenoughcurrentatthebaseofthetransistor,itmakesapathforthecollectorcurrenttogothroughthebasetowardstheemitter.Inordertousethetransistorasaswitch,itmustbedrivenintothesaturationregionwithenoughbasecurrent.Andatransistoroperatesasaclosedswitchunderthesaturationregion.TransistorasaclosedswitchAssoonasapositivesignal(informofvoltageandcurrent)isremovedacrossthebaseofthetransistor,theflowofelectriccurrentbetweenthecollectorandemitterbecomeszero.Andthetransistorbehaveslikeanopenswitchunderthecut-offregion.TransistorasanopenswitchThissimplyimpliesifweapplysignal(voltage/current)acrossthecollectorandemitterbutnotacrossthebase,thetransistorwillnotwork.Butasmallsignalacrossthebaseisenoughtomakeitwork.BC548ReplacementandEquivalentBC547,BC549,2N2222,2N3904,BC550(PinconfigurationofsometransistorsmaydifferentfromBC548,checkpinconfigurationbeforeusingorreplacinginacircuit)BC548ComplementaryPairsThePNPcounterpartsoftheBC546toBC550aretheBC556toBC560respectively,i.e.thetypenumbersarehigherbyten.BC558TheBC558isthePNPversionoftheBC548,andhashighervoltageversions:BC556andBC557,andlowernoiseversions:BC559andBC560.BC548EquivalentTransistorsBC549,BC636,BC639,2N2222TO-92,2N2222TO-18,2N2369,2N3055,2N3904,2N3906,2SC5200HowtoSafelyLongRunBC548inCircuitToincreasethedurabilityandperformanceofthisdevicetheusermuchfollowtheguidelinesandshouldnotincreasethevaluesasdescribedbelow.Donotdrivethetransistorabove30V,alwaysmakesuretoplaceitspinsrightinthecircuit,donotprovideloadmorethan500mA,andalwaysuseasuitableresistoratthebaseofthetransistortoprovideitrequiredcurrent.Donotuseorstorethedeviceintemperatureabove+150centigradeandbelow-55centigrade.WheretoUseBC548BC548transistorcanbeusedinmanygeneralpurposeapplications;youcanuseitinthereplacementofothergeneralpurposetransistor2N3904,BC547etc.asdescribedabove.Apartfromthatitcanbeusedasaswitchtodriveloadunder500mA.The500mAcollectorcurrentisquitegoodfeatureforthissizeandtypeoftransistorthereforeyoucandrivewidevarietyofloadsatthesametimeinanelectroniccircuit.MoreoverthistransistoralsohasaverygoodDCcurrentgainandcollectordissipationcharacteristicswhichmakesitidealtouseitinamplificationandpre-amplificationstagesofanelectroniccircuit.ComponentDatasheetBC548DatasheetFAQWhatisBC548Transistor?BC548isaNPNtransistorsothecollectorandemitterwillbeleftopen(Reversebiased)whenthebasepinisheldatgroundandwillbeclosed(Forwardbiased)whenasignalisprovidedtobasepin.BC548hasagainvalueof110to800,thisvaluedeterminestheamplificationcapacityofthetransistor.WhatistheUseofBC548Transistor?BC458isageneral-purposeNPNtransistorusedinmanyelectronicsprojectsanddevices.BC548transistorisusedforamplifyingandswitchingpurposesinelectricalcircuits.LikeeveryotherNPNtransistor,itconsistsofthreepins:thecollector,base,andemitter.HowaTransistorWorksasaSwitch?Byturningasmallinputcurrentintoalargeoutputcurrent,thetransistoractslikeanamplifier.Butitalsoactslikeaswitchatthesametime.Whenthereisnocurrenttothebase,littleornocurrentflowsbetweenthecollectorandtheemitter....Sothebasecurrentswitchesthewholetransistoronandoff.WhatistheDifferenceBetweenBC547AndBC548?ThisgroupofNPNtransistorssharemanyspecificationsandcharacteristiccurves,butdifferinvoltageratings-theBC546andBC547areessentiallythesameastheBC548butselectedwithhigherbreakdownvoltages,whiletheBC549isalownoiseversion,andtheBC550isbothhigh-voltageandlow-noise.The transistor can be as a switch and also as an amplifier.

On the other hand if used as an amplifier it can deliver 400mW and the maximum DC current gain value is 520.When using as a switch it can handle load of upto 100mA.

push({});Features / Technical SpecificationsPackage Type: TO-92Transistor Type: NPN Max Collector Current(IC): 100mA Max Collector-Emitter Voltage (VCE): 25VMax Collector-Base Voltage (VCB): 30VMax Emitter-Base Voltage (VEBO): 7VMax Collector Dissipation (Pc):  400 miliWattMax Transition Frequency (fT): 220 MHzMinimum Maximum DC Current Gain (hFE): 130 – 260 (Q).The pin configuration of these transistors may different from C828.