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DM368

时间:2021-04-23 00:18:40 来源:网络整理编辑:DM368

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where and how to use in a circuit and how to safely use in electronic circuit

where and how to use in a circuit and how to safely use in electronic circuit

Thanks to its standard pinout structure due to which it can easily be replaced with other operational amplifiersThanks to its standard pinout structure due to which it can easily be replaced with other operational amplifiers.

DM368

push({});Applications:Sensor CircuitsSmall Signal AmplificationGeneral Op Amp CircuitsAudio Preamplifiers Replacement / Equivalent / Other Part Numbers:LM258The78L05isathreeterminalintegratedregulator.Itsexcellentinternalcurrentlimitandthermalshutdowncharacteristicsmakeitparticularlysuitableforoverloadconditions.WhenusedtoreplacethetraditionalZenerdiode-resistorgroup,itsoutputimpedanceiseffectivelyimproved,butthebiascurrentisgreatlyreduced.78L05issuitableformanyapplications.Theycanbecombinedwithotherpowertransferdevicestoformahigh-currentregulatedpowersupply,suchasavoltageregulatorthatcandriveanoutputcurrentofupto100mA.Catalog78L05Pinout78L05Features78L05Applications78L05Advantage78L05Equivalents78L05AlternativeWheretouse78L05Howtotest78L05Howtouse78L0578L05PackageComponentDatasheet78L05PinoutPinNo.PinNameDescription1Output(Vo)OutputsRegulated+5V2Ground(Gnd)ConnectedtoGround3Input(V+)UnregulatedInputVoltage78L05FeaturesOperatingcurrent(IQ)is5mAInternalThermalOverloadandShortcircuitcurrentlimitingprotectionisavailable.Themaximuminputvoltageis30volts.TO-92,SO-8,andSOT-89packagesareavailable.PositiveVoltageRegulator5VMaximumoutputcurrentis100mA.Note:CompleteTechnicalDetailscanbefoundatthe78L05datasheetgivenattheendofthispage.78L05ApplicationsAdjustableOutputRegulatorConstant+5Voutputregulatortopowersmallloadsoflessthan100mAOutputPolarity-Reversal-ProtectionCircuitOutputboostercircuitCurrentLimiterforcertainapplications78L05Advantage78L05VoltageRegulator78L05isafixedvoltage(5V)threeterminalintegratedregulator,whichcanbeappliedtomanyapplications.Itsexcellentinternalcurrentandthermalshutdowncharacteristicsmakeitespeciallysuitableforoverload.Whenitisusedtoreplacethetraditionalzenerdiode-resistancegroup,itsoutputimpedanceisimprovedeffectively,butthebiascurrentisgreatlyreduced.Inanotherwords,78L05series(likeL78L05ACD013TR)isafixedvoltage(5V)threeterminalintegratedvoltageregulator,whichissuitableformanyapplications.Likeasinglepointvoltageregulatorwhichneedstolimitthenoiseandsolvethedistributionproblem,itcanalsobeusedwithotherpowertransferdevicestoformastablevoltagepowersupplywithlargecurrent,suchasastableoutputcurrentofupto100mA.78L05EquivalentsLM7805,AMS711178L05AlternativeLM317,LM7806,LM7809,LM7905,LM117V33,LM7812,LM7912,XC6206P332MR.Wheretouse78L05Voltageregulatorsarefrequentlyusedinelectroniccircuits.Theyproduceaconstantoutputvoltageinresponsetoavariableinputvoltage.Inourcase,the78L05ICisawell-knownregulatorICthatisusedinawiderangeofprojects.Thename78L05hastwomeanings:78indicatesthatitisapositivevoltageregulator,and05indicatesthatitoutputs5V.Asaresult,our7805willproducea+5Voutputvoltage.ThisICsoutputcurrentcanreach100mA.However,theICsuffersfromsignificantheatloss,soaheatsinkisrecommendedforprojectsthatrequireahighercurrentconsumption.Forexample,iftheinputvoltageis12Vandthecurrentconsumptionis50mA,(12-5)*(50*10-3)=0.35W.This0.35Wattswillbedissipatedintheformofheat.Anotherpopularvoltageregulatoristhe7805,whichislargerbuthasahighercurrentratingofabout1A.So,ifyourelookingforasmallerpackageofavoltageregulatorwithalowcurrentratinginaTO-92package,thisICmightbeagoodfit.Howtotest78L05Allyouneedtodoistakethepositiveprobeofftheinputpinandplaceitontheoutputpin.Youcanleavethenegativeprobeonthegroundpin.Theamountofoutputvoltageindicatedshouldbe5voltsbecauseofthe05associatedwith78L05.Howtouse78L05The78L05isavoltageregulatorwiththreeterminals.Asshowninthe78L05pinoutdiagram,thethreeterminalsareInput,Output,andGround.ItisverysimpletousethisIC;simplyconnecttheinputpintotheinputvoltagethatneedstoberegulatedandthegroundpintosystemground.TheICsoutputpincanbeusedtoobtainregulated5V.The78L05isusedinthecircuitbelowtoregulatea12Vinputvoltageto5V.Youusethe5Vtopoweranysmallloadsthatdrawlessthan100mA,suchasLEDs.BecausethemaximumcurrentthatthisICcanprovideisonly100mA.ItisalsoworthnotingthatthecapacitorsC1andC2areusedatboththeinputandoutputends.Thesecapacitorsfilteranynoisethatiscoupledwiththeinputvoltage.Itisnotnecessarytousetheexactvalueofthecapacitor,but10uFforC1and1uFforC2wouldbeagoodstartingpoint.Theseregulatorscanalsolimitcurrentandprotectwhenthetemperaturerisesabovethejunctiontemperature.Ifyouconnecthighcurrentloads,youcanexpecttheICtogetveryhotandeventuallyshuntdown.Inthiscase,ahighcurrentregulatorsuchasthe7805wouldbeanexcellentchoice.Itcanbeusedasavoltageregulator,acurrentregulator,ashort-circuitprotector,aboostercircuit,andevenavariablevoltageregulatorinadditiontoavoltageregulator.Allofthesecircuitscanbefoundonpage27/45ofthe78L05datasheet,whichislinkedbelow.78L05PackageComponentDatasheet78L05DatasheetTheDRV8825MotorDriverModuleisadriverwithtwoH-bridgedrivesandamicrosteppingindexer.Thedriverhasamaximumoutputcapacityof45Vand2.5A.Itcanoperatebipolarsteppermotorsinfull,1/2,1/4,1/8,1/16and1/32-stepmodes.ThisdrivermoduleisgenerallyusedinRobotics,ATMsandGamingMachines.ThisisatutorialvideoshowinghowtocontrolsteppermotordriverwithDRV8825Module.CatalogDRV8825ModulePinoutDRV8825SpecificationDRV8825FeaturesDRV8825AlternativesDRV8825VSA4988HowtoUseDRV8825DriverModuleDRV8825ApplicationsDRV8825ICDimensionsComponentDatasheetDRV8825ModulePinoutPinNameDescriptionVDDGNDConnectedto5VandGNDofControllerVMOTGNDMOTUsedtopowerthemotorB1,B2A1,A2OutputPins,Connectedtothe4WiresofmotorDIRECTIONMotorDirectionControlpinSTEPStepsControlPinM0,M1,M2MicrostepSelectionPinsFAULTFaultDetectionPinSLEEPPinsForControllingPowerStatesRESET-ENABLE-DRV8825SpecificationMax.OperatingVoltage:45VMin.OperatingVoltage:8.2VMax.CurrentPerPhase:2.5APCBSize:15mmx20mmDRV8825FeaturesSixstepresolution:Fullstep,step,step,1/8,1/16and1/32stepAdjustableoutputcurrentviapotentiometerAutomaticcurrentdecaymodedetectionOvertemperatureshutdowncircuitUnder-voltagelockoutOvercurrentshutdownDRV8825AlternativesAlternativesforDRV8825:A4988,A498,L6474,L6207,L6208,TMC2208,TMC2209DRV8825VSA4988A4988steppermotordriverTheDRV8825carrierwasdesignedtobeasfamiliartoA4988steppermotordrivercarriersaspossible,anditcanbeusedasadrop-inreplacementfortheA4988carrierinmanyapplicationsduetoitssimilarsize,pinout,andgeneralcontrolinterface.Thereareafewdistinctionstobemadebetweenthetwomodules:BecausetheDRV8825doesnotrequirealogicsupply,thepinusedtosupplylogicvoltagetotheA4988isusedastheDRV8825sFAULToutput(andtheA4988doesnothaveafaultoutput).BecauseitissafetoconnecttheFAULTpindirectlytoalogicsupply(a1.5kresistorisplacedbetweentheICoutputandthepintoprotectit),theDRV8825modulecanbeusedinA4988-basedsystemsthatroutelogicpowertothispin.TheDRV8825sSLEEPpinisnotpulledupbydefault,asitisontheA4988,butthecarrierboarddoesconnectittotheFAULTpinviaa10kresistor.Asaresult,systemsdesignedfortheA4988thatroutelogicpowertotheFAULTpinhavea10kpull-upontheSLEEPpin.(Theinitial(md20a)versionoftheDRV8825carrierlacksthis10kresistor.)Thecurrentlimitpotentiometerisinadifferentlocation.Therelationshipbetweenthecurrentlimitsettingandthereferencepinvoltageisdifferent.TheDRV8825has1/32-stepmicrostepping,whereastheA4988onlyhas1/16-step.OntheDRV8825,themodeselectionpininputscorrespondingto1/16-stepontheA4988resultin1/32-stepmicrostepping.ThestepselectiontableforallothermicrosteppingresolutionsisthesameforboththeDRV8825andtheA4988.Forthetwodrivers,thetimingrequirementsforminimumpulsedurationsontheSTEPpindiffer.WhenusingtheDRV8825,thehighandlowSTEPpulsesmustbeatleast1.9uslong;whenusingtheA4988,theycanbeasshortas1us.TheDRV8825hasahighermaximumsupplyvoltagethantheA4988(45Vvs35V),whichmeansitcanbeusedathighervoltagesmoresafelyandislessvulnerabletodamagefromLCvoltagespikes.Withoutanyadditionalcooling,theDRV8825candelivermorecurrentthantheA4988(basedonourfull-steptests:1.5ApercoilfortheDRV8825vs1.2ApercoilfortheA4988and1ApercoilfortheoriginalA4988carrier).ThesteppermotoroutputsontheDRV8825haveadifferentnamingconvention,buttheyarefunctionallythesameasthecorrespondingpinsontheA4988carrier,sothesameconnectionstobothdriversresultinthesamesteppermotorbehavior.Thefirstpartofthelabelonbothboardsidentifiesthecoil(socoilsAandBontheDRV8825andcoils1and2ontheA4988).Color-sensitiveapplicationsshouldbeawarethattheDRV8825carrierispurple.HowtoUseDRV8825DriverModuleTheinterfacediagramforDRV8825isshownbelow.YoucancontrolthesteppermotorwithveryfewpinsusingtheDRV8825.ThemodulehasapinoutandinterfacethatarealmostidenticaltothoseoftheA4988steppermotordrivercarrier.DRV8255SchematicDiagramAsshowninthediagramabove,themodulepinsDIR,STEPandFAULTareconnectedtothemicrocontrollertodrivethesteppermotor.STEPpinusedtocontrolstepswhiletheDIRpinisusedtocontroldirections.TheDRV8825alsofeaturesanFAULTpin,theFaultpinisshortenedtotheSLEEPpin,sowhenevertheFaultpinislow,thewholechipisdisabled.Microsteppins(M0,M1andM2)areusedtooperatethedrivermoduleinavarietyofstepfunctions.IntheabovecircuitM0,M1,andM2pinsleftoff,thismeansthatthedriverwilloperateinfull-stepmode.DRV8825haslow-ESRceramiccapacitorsonboard,makingitvulnerabletovoltagespikes.Therefore,itisrecommendedtoputanatleast47fcapacitoracrossthemotorpowersupplypins.ItiscommonlyusedincontrollingtheNEMAseriessteppermotorslikeNEMA17,NEMA23,NEMA34.DRV8825ApplicationsAutomaticTellerMachinesMoneyHandlingMachinesVideoSecurityCamerasPrintersScannersOfficeAutomationMachinesGamingMachinesFactoryAutomationRoboticsDRV8825ICDimensionsComponentDatasheetDRV8825Datasheet

DM368

CR2430batteryisnon-rechargeablelithium3.0voltsbatterywithatypicalcapacityof270-300mAhandphysicaldimensionsof24.5x3.0mm.ThisblogwouldcoverCR2430sfeature,specification,itscomparisonwithCR2450andmuchmore.CatalogCR2430DescriptionCR2430FeaturesCR2430SpecificationsWhatareCoinBatteriesCR2430EquivalentCR2430vsCR2450CR2430DimensionCR2430ApplicationComponentDatasheetFAQCR2430DescriptionCR2430batteriesarenon-rechargeableLithiumManganeseDioxide(LiMnO2)button/coin-cellbatteries,featuringphysicaldimensionsof(DxH)24.5x3.0mm(~0.9646x0.1181inches).CR2430batteriesfeatureanominalvoltageof3.0volts,cutoffvoltageof2.0volts,andnominalcapacityof~270-320mAh-asusualwiththebatteries,actualcapacitydependsonthebatteryage,storagetemperature,drainconditions(current,temperature),andsimilar.ThestandarddischargecurrentofCR2430batteriesis~0.2mA,whilepulsecurrentdependsonthepulselength,butgenerally,itisinthe7-15mArange.CR2430FeaturesLightweight,HighVoltageandHighEnergyDensityThebatteryvoltageis3V,almostdoublethatofnormalalkalineormanganesebatteries.Thismeansthatthenumberofbatteriesrequiredforequipmentcanbehalvedformaximumspacesavingandweightreduction.ExcellentDischargeCharacteristicsVoltagecharacteristicsremainstableevenforalongperiodofdischarge,greatlyimprovingthereliabilityofequipmentthatusesthebattery.Suchequipmentisalsomaintenance-free(batteryreplacementisseldomrequired).ExcellentLeakageResistanceThenewlydevelopedbatteryconstructionandelectrolyteensuremaximumleakageresistanceoveralongspanoftime.ExcellentLong-TermReliabilityCarefullyselectedactivematerialsareusedfortheactivematerialaswellasfortheelectrolyte.ThesematerialsaresealedbyMuratasinnovativetechnologytominimizebatteryself-discharge.Theannualself-dischargerateatroomtemperatureandnormalhumidityislessthan1%ofthenominalcapacity.ULApprovedPartsMuratasCoinManganeseDioxideLithiumBatteriesareapprovedbyUL.(UL1642FileNo.MH12566)RoHSDirective/EuropeanDirectivesThisproductdoesnotcontainMercury(Hg),Cadmium(Cd),norLead(Pb),andconformstoECregulationvalues.(Directive2006/66/EC,2013/56/EU)BatterypackareexcludedfromRoHSdirective(DIRECTIVE2011/65/EUOFTHEEUROPEANPARLIAMENTANDOFTHECOUNCILof8June2011ontherestrictionoftheuseofcertainCR2430SpecificationsBatterytypeCoinManganeseDioxideLithiumBatteriesNominalVoltage3.0VNominalCapacity300mAhStandardDischargeCurrent0.2mAOperatingTemperatureRange-30℃to70℃Diameter(inch)0.965inchDiameter(mm)24.5mmHeight(inch)0.118inchHeight(mm)3mmIEC(JIS)CR2430Mass(oz)0.155ozMass(g)4.4gWhatareCoinBatteriescoinbatteriesCoinbatteries,commonlyknownasbuttoncells.Awatchbatteryorbuttoncellisasmallsinglecellbatteryshapedasasquatcylindertypically5to25mm(0.197to0.984in)indiameterand1to6mm(0.039to0.236in)highresemblingabutton.Stainlesssteelusuallyformsthebottombodyandpositiveterminalofthecell.Aninsulatedtopcapisthenegativeterminal.Coinbatteriesarecommonlyusedingaragedooropeners,medicaldevices,watches,remotecontrolsandgreetingcardswithsound.Donotleavethesedevicesreadilyavailableandmakesurechildrenaresupervisedwhenincontactwiththemsothataccesstocoinbatteriescanbeprevented.CR2430EquivalentTheCR2430batteryisalsoareplacementforequivalentbatteries:CR2430,DL2430,BR2430,KL2430,L2430,ECR2430,5011LC,L20,KCR2430,E-CR2430,KECR2430,LF1/2WCR2430vsCR2450CR2450CR2450iscommonlyusedinwatches,computermotherboards,medicaldevices,LEDflashlights,toys,remotecontrols,remotecarkeys,securitysystems,wearableelectronics,etc.Comparedtosmaller3.0Vlithiumbatteries,theCR2450isalargeandpowerfulbatterywithalargecapacityandisoftenusedinhighdraindevices.TheCR2450batteryhasadiameterof24mm(~0.945inches)andaheightof5.0mm(~0.197inches)andaweightrangeof5.7-6.3+grams(0.2-0.222+ounces).TheCR2430batteryisanon-rechargeablelithium3.0voltbatterywithatypicalcapacityof270-300mAhanddimensionsof24.5x3.0mm.Ascanbeseen,theCR2430batterymayfitintothebatterycompartmentsdesignedforCR2450batteries,butcontactsmaycauseproblems.Furthermore,theCR2430hasmuchlowercapacityanddraincurrents,whichmaycausecertaindevicestomalfunction.Tosummarize,donotreplacetheCR2450batterywiththeCR2430batteryunlessabsolutelynecessaryandatyourownrisk!CR2430DimensionCR2430ApplicationAutomotive・SmartKey/Keylessentry・DoorsillstripIoT・Trackingdevices・Sensors・SecurityMedical・ThermometersOthers・Homeelectricalappliances/Multi-functionalprinter・Electronicpricetags,POSsystemsComponentDatasheetCR2430DatasheetFAQAreCR2450andCR2430interchangeable?Non-rechargeable3.0voltslithiumCR2430,CR2450,CR2477batteriesfeaturethesamediameterof24mm(~0.945inches),butdifferentheightof3.0,5.0and7.7mm(~0.118,0.197and0.303inches)respectively.Whatare2430batteriesusedfor?TheyarepopularbecausetheydeliverIdealTemperatureResistanceandSuperiorStoragecapacity.CR2430Lithiumsinparticulararecommonlyusedinthefollowingapplications:Watches,Pagers,Calculators,PDAOrganizers(electronicagendas),lightsandotherelectronicdevices.IsDL2430sameasCR2430?DuracellDL2430batteriesarefullyinterchangeablewithallCR2430batteries.WhatbatteryisequivalenttoCR2430?CR2025andCR2032batteriescansometimesbeusedinplaceofeachother,eventhoughCR2025batteriesareslightlythinner.ThereisnotruesubstituteforaCR2430battery,andtheyrepresentasomewhatuniquesizeinthebatteryworld.LM350isa3ADCadjustablepowersupply,high-performancevoltageregulator.Thisblogwillcoverthepinout,feature,equivalent,circuitdiagramofLM350voltageregulator,alsoincludingwhereandhowtousethisdevice,etc.CatalogLM350DescriptionLM350PinoutLM350FeaturesLM350ParameterLM350EquivalentLM350CircuitWheretouseLM350HowtouseLM350LM350PackageLM350ApplicationLM350ManufacturerComponentDatasheetLM350DescriptionTheLM350isanadaptablepositivevoltageregulator.Therearethreeterminals:Vin,Vout,andAdj.Thistypeofregulatorisusedtoprovideanadditional3ampsofcurrentacrossanoutputrange.ThisICisextremelysimpletouseandonlyrequirestwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltage.Inadvance,itemploysinternalcurrentlimiting,safeareacompensation,thermalshutdown,andsoon.Thisregulatorisusedinmanyapplications,includinglocalandon-cardregulation.Wecanusethisregulatortodesignaprogrammableo/pregulator,anadjustableswitchingregulator,oraprecisioncurrentregulatorbyusingafixedresistorbetweenthetwopinslikeadjustmentoutput.LM350PinoutLM350voltageregulatorLM350voltageregulatorpinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1AdjustThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage2OutputVoltage(Vout)Theregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispin3InputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM350FeaturesDeliversanoutputcurrentof3Amps.Outputvoltageisadjustablefrom1.25Vto33Vwith1%tolerance.Providesaloadregulationof0.1%andalineregulationof0.005%/V.Thechipcanbearmaximuminputtoanoutputvoltagedifferenceof35V.Fornormaloperation,itshouldbe15volts.Itprovidesthermalregulationagainstoverloads.TheoverloadprotectionprotectsthechipandkeepsperformingitsoperationeveniftheadjustterminalisnotconnectedorProvidesfloatingoperationinhighvoltageapplications.Ithasbuilt-inprotectionwhichprotectsthechipwhenthecurrentexceedsbeyondtheratingbytrippingthedevice.Veryhighdissipationofaround85watts.LM350ParameterManufacturer:TexasInstrumentsSeries:-Packaging:TubePartStatus:ActiveOutputConfiguration:PositiveOutputType:AdjustableNumberofRegulators:1Voltage-Input(Max):35VVoltage-Output(Min/Fixed):1.25VVoltage-Output(Max):33VVoltageDropout(Max):-Current-Output:3APSRR:86dB~65dB(120Hz)ControlFeatures:-ProtectionFeatures:OverCurrentOverTemperatureShortCircuitOperatingTemperature:0C~125CMountingType:ThroughHolePackage/Case:TO-220-3SupplierDevicePackage:TO-220-3BasePartNumber:LM350LM350EquivalentLM350AlternativeVoltageRegulators:LM7805,LM7806,LM7809,LM7812,LM7905,LM7912,LM117V33,XC6206P332MR.LM350EquivalentVoltageRegulators:LM317,LT1086,LM1117(SMD),PB137,LM337(NegativeVariableVoltageregulator)LM350CircuitTheLM350ICscircuitdiagramisshownbelow.Athree-terminalintegratedcircuitiswhatitis.Thisregulatorcanbefoundinavarietyofapplications.Itcanalsofunctionasavariablevoltageregulator.LM350CircuitDiagramWevealreadymensionedthisIChasthreepins,oneofwhichisconnectedtotheVinpin,whichreceivestheinputvoltage.Apotentialdivideristhenusedtofixavoltageattheadjustpin.Avoltagedividercanbeformedusingapairofresistorsinthiscase.Asaresult,theoutputvoltagecanbedeterminedusingtheVoutpin.ThecircuitspairofresistorscanbeconnectedtoVout.Apotentiometerisusedtofixvariablevoltagesatpin-1withinthepotentialdividertomakethisIClooklikeavariablevoltageregulator.ThepotentialdifferencecanbecreatedbyconnectingresistorR1andthepotentiometerattheadjustingpin,whichcontrolstheVoutpinaccordingtotheformula:VOUT=1.25(1+(R2/R1))+Iadj(R2)WheretouseLM350Thisregulatorwouldbethefirstchoiceforvariablevoltageregulationrequirements.BecausethisICcansupplyupto3A,wecanusetheLM350ICifweneedtosupplymorethan1.5A.Avariablevoltageregulatorisusedtofixthevoltagebetween1.25Vand33Vandtosupplycurrentupto3A.Thisregulatorisanexcellentchoiceforavarietyofapplications.Thisregulatoralsoincludesacurrentregulator,whichisusedinbatterychargingapplications.HowtouseLM350Themajorityofvoltageregulatorsemployaninputandoutputcapacitor.TheoperationoftheLM350issimilartothatofothervoltageregulators.Youcanadjustthevaluesoftheresistorsconnectedbetweentheadjustableandoutputpinstochangetheoutputvoltagefrom1.25Vto33V.Theoutputcapacitorenhancesregulationaswellastransientresponse.Thisdeviceprovidesexcellentloadregulation.Toachievegoodregulation,theresistorR1shouldbedirectlyconnectedtotheoutputtomaximizeperformance.LM350PackageLM350ApplicationBatterychargersCurrentLimitedchargersSwitchingRegulatorsTemperatureControllersLightControllerTrackingPre-regulatorLM350ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isaglobalsemiconductordesignandmanufacturingcompanythatdevelopsanalogICsandembeddedprocessors.Byemployingtheworldsbrightestminds,TIcreatesinnovationsthatshapethefutureoftechnology.TIishelpingmorethan100,000customerstransformthefuture,today.ComponentDatasheetLM350Datasheet

DM368

BT136isatypeofelectroniccomponents,whichisatriac.Thethyristorisalsotheabbreviationofthethyristorrectifierelement.Itisahigh-powersemiconductordevicewithafour-layerstructurewiththreePNjunctions,whichisgenerallyformedbyreverselyconnectingtwothyristors.Itsfunctionisnotonlytorectify,butalsotobeusedasanon-contactswitchtoquicklyturnonoroffthecircuit,realizetheinversionofthedirectcurrentintothealternatingcurrent,thealternatingcurrentofonefrequencyintothealternatingcurrentofanotherfrequency,andsoon.Thethyristor,likeothersemiconductordevices,hastheadvantagesofsmallsize,highefficiency,goodstability,andreliableoperation.Withitsemergence,semiconductortechnologyhasmovedfromtheweakcurrentfieldtothestrongcurrentfield,andhasbecomeacomponentusedinindustries,agriculture,transportation,militaryscientificresearch,aswellascommercialandcivilianelectricalappliances.Name:BT136Features:Highbreakdownvoltage,largeoutputcurrentDescription:Plasticsingle-endedpackage;heatsinkmounted;1mountinghole;3-leadTO-220ABPackage:TO-220CatalogBT136PinoutBT136FeaturesPT136ApplicationsBT136AdvantageTRIACApplicationTipsBT136EquivalentsHowtouseBT136BT136PackageComponentDatasheetFAQBT136PinoutPinNumberSymbolDescription1T1MainTerminal1:ConnectedtoPhaseorneutralofACmains2T2MainTerminal2:ConnectedtoPhaseorneutralofACmains3GGate:UsedtotriggertheSCR.BT136FeaturesDirecttriggeringfromlowpowerdriversandlogicICsHighblockingvoltagecapabilityLowholdingcurrentforlowcurrentloadsandlowestEMIatcommutationPlanarpassivatedforvoltageruggednessandreliabilitySensitivegateTriggeringinallfourquadrantsPT136ApplicationsGeneralpurposemotorcontrolGeneralpurposeswitchingBT136AdvantageBT136TRIACICTheBT136isTRIACwith4Amaximumterminalcurrent.ThegatethresholdvoltageoftheBT136isalsoverylesssocanbedrivenbydigitalcircuits.SinceTRIACsarebi-directionalswitchingdevicestheyarecommonlyusedforswitchingACapplications.Soifyoulookingtoswitchofcontrol(dim,speedcontrol)anACloadwhichconsumeslessthan6AwithadigitaldevicelikemicrocontrollerormicroprocessorthenBT136mightbetherightforyou.PlanarpassivatedsensitivegatefourquadranttriacinaSOT78plasticpackageintendedforuseingeneralpurposebidirectionalswitchingandphasecontrolapplications.ThissensitivegateseriesEtriacisintendedtobeinterfaceddirectlytomicrocontrollers,logicintegratedcircuitsandotherlowpowergatetriggercircuits.TRIACApplicationTipsSinceTRIACSdealwithACvoltages,thecircuitinvolvingthemhastobedesignedproperlytoaboidproblemsometipsaresharedbelowAllTRIACcircuitssufferfromaneffectcalledRateEffect.ThisoccurswhentheTRIACisswitchingfrequentlyandasuddenhighvoltageoccursateithermainterminaloftheTRIACanddamagestheTRIACitself.Itcanbeavoidedbyusingasnubbercircuit.Similarlythereisanothereffectcalledbacklasheffect.ThisoccursduetothecapacitancethatgetsaccumulatedbetweenthetwoterminalsoftheMT1andMT2oftheTRIAC.DuetothistheTRIACwillnotturnonevenifthegatevoltageisapplied.Thisproblemcanbesolvedbyprovidingaresistanceinseriesforthecapacitancetodischarge.WhencontrollingtheoutputACvoltagefordimmerorspeedcontrolapplicationsaZerocrossingmethodisalwaysrecommendedtobeused.InswitchingcircuitstheTRIACiseasilysubjectedtoharmonicsandEMIinterferencehenceshouldbeisolatedfromotherdigitalelectronics.ThereischanceofbackwardcurrentwhentheTRIACisswitchinginductiveloads,soanalternatedischargepathhastobeprovidedfortheloadtodraintheinrushcurrent.BT136EquivalentsBTA08-600BHowtouseBT136TherearemanydifferentwaystouseaTRIAC,sincethedeviceisbi-directionaltheTRIACgatecanbetriggerwitheitherpositivevoltageornegativevoltage.SothisallowstheTIRACtobeoperatedinfourdifferentmodes.Youcanreadthisarticleifyouwanttoknowmoreabouttheswitchingmodes.AsimpleTRIACswitchingcircuitisshownbelow.InthiscircuittheTRIACcanbeturnedusingtheswitch,whentheswitchispressedtheTRIACclosestheconnectionfortheACbulbthoughtheACmains.Forthistohappen,thegatepinoftheTRIACshouldreceiveavoltagegreaterthanthethresholdgatevoltageandshouldalsogetacurrentthatisgreaterthangatetriggercurrent.ThiswillmaketheTRIACturnon.SincetheTRIACandSCRsharemostofthesamecharacteristics,justlikeSCRtheTRIACwillalsonotturnoffwhenthegatevoltageisremoved.WeneedspecialtypeofcircuitcalledcommutationcircuittoturnoftheSCRagain.Thiscommutationisnormallydonebyreducingtheloadcurrent(forcedcommutation)lessthantheholdingcurrent.ToputitsimpletheTRIACwillremainturnedononlytilltheloadcurrentisgreaterthantheholdingcurrentoftheTRIAC.Note:CommutationisnotrequiredinACswitchingcircuitsbecausetheTRIACwillnotlatchinonstatesincetheACvoltagereacheszeroforeveryhalfcycle.OtherthancontrollingthroughswitchtheBT136canalsobecontrolledthroughamicrocontrolleroramicroprocessor.TodothisweneedanOpto-isolatorlikeMOC3021toisolatetheACcircuitformDigitalelectronics.ThiswaytheLoadcannotonlybeswitchedbutalsotheoutputcoltagecanbecontrolledbyusingPWMsignalsforfastswitching.BT136PackagePackageName:TO-220ABPackageDescription:plasticsingle-endedpackage;heatsinkmounted;1mountinghole;3-leadTO-220ABPackageVersion:SOT78PackageOutline:ComponentDatasheetBT136-600EDatasheetFAQWhatisBT136?TheBT136isTRIACwith4Amaximumterminalcurrent.ThegatethresholdvoltageoftheBT136isalsoverylesssocanbedrivenbydigitalcircuits.SinceTRIACsarebi-directionalswitchingdevicestheyarecommonlyusedforswitchingACapplications.Whatdoesatriacdo?TriacsareelectroniccomponentsthatarewidelyusedinACpowercontrolapplications.Theyareabletoswitchhighvoltagesandhighlevelsofcurrent,andoverbothpartsofanACwaveform.Thismakestriaccircuitsidealforuseinavarietyofapplicationswherepowerswitchingisneeded.

TheMAX7219isanICdesignedtocontrol8x8LEDMATRIX.TheICisaserialinputcommon-cathode(CommonNegative)displaydriverthatinterfacesmicroprocessors(ormicrocontrollers)to7-segmentnumericLEDdisplaysofupto8digits,bar-graphdisplays,or64individualLEDs.ThisblogisanoverviewofMAX7219coveringitspinout,features,whereandhowtousethisdevice,etc.Arduino7SegmentDisplayMax7219TutorialCatalogMAX7912PinConfigurationMAX7912FeaturesMAX7912EquivalentWheretoUseMAX7912ICHowtoUseMAX7912ICMAX7912ApplicationsMAX7912DimensionsComponentDatasheetMAX7912PinConfigurationMAX7219MAX7219PinoutPinNumberDescriptionCOMMONCATHODEOFDISPLAYSEGMENTS2DIG0-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT011DIG1-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT16DIG2-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT27DIG3-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT33DIG4-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT410DIG5-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT55DIG6-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT68DIG7-CommongroundforalleightsegmentsofDIGIT7SHAREDTERMINALS4GND19V+-PowerSupplySHAREDSEGMENTTERMINALOFALLEIGHTDIGITS14SEGASEGEMTENTAofallDIGITS16SEGBSEGEMTENTBofallDIGITS20SEGCSEGEMTENTCofallDIGITS23SEGDSEGEMTENTDofallDIGITS21SEGESEGEMTENTEofallDIGITS15SEGFSEGEMTENTFofallDIGITS17SEGGSEGEMTENTGofallDIGITS22SEGDPSEGEMTENTDOTofallDIGITSFUNCTIONPINS1DIN-SerialDataInputPin12LOAD(CS)ChipSelectorDatashiftpin13CLK-ClockPin24DOUT-PinusedtoConnectSecondchipserially18ISET-currentoutputadjustpinMAX7912FeaturesOperatingvoltagerange:+4.0to+5.5VRecommendedoperatingvoltage:+5VMaximumsupplyvoltage:6VMaximumcurrentallowedtodrawthrougheachsegmentpin:100mAMaximumcurrentallowedtothrougheachDIGITgroundpin:500mALowpowerconsumptionData-to-SegmentDelayTime:2.2mSecOperatingtemperature:0Cto+70CStorageTemperature:-65Cto+150CMAX7912Equivalent74HC595WheretoUseMAX7912IC1.ThisICisbasicallyusedwhenyouwanttoconvertserialdatatoparalleldata.2.ThechipisusedtoreducetheI/Opinuseofthecontrollerorprocessor.3.Usedforcontrolling64LEDsusingonly3pins4.Preferredwhencontroller7SegmentDisplays.Thechipcancontrolupto8DIGIT.5.Canbeusedtocontrolmoredisplaysegmentsbyconnectingmorechipsinserial.HowtoUseMAX7912ICMAX7219isusedinasimilarmannertoanyshiftregister.Firstwesendtheserialdatatothechipbitbybit.Onceallthedataissent,wetellthechiptomovetheserialdatatotheoutputbyenablingtheCSpin.Thestep-by-stepworkingprocedureisasfollows.FirstconnecttheDIN,CSandCLKpins.Thesethreepinsareveryimportantforcontrollingthechip.NextisselectingtheresistancefortheISETpin.Asweknow,thereisnostandardmarketparameterforsegmentdisplays.Theyhavedifferentvoltageandcurrentsettings.Todrivethedisplaywithouterror,wewillusethefollowingtabletoselecttheappropriateresistor.ForwardvoltageISeg1.5V2.0V2.5V3.0V3.5V40mA12.2k11.8k11.0k10.6k9.69k30mA17.8k17.1k15.8k15.0k14.0k20mA29.8k28.0k25.9k24.5k22.6k10mA66.7k63.7k59.3k55.4k51.2kTherearetwowaystomakeuseofthischip.Oneistofollowtheinstructionsinthedatasheettosendthedatabitbybit.Thesecondwayistousethelibrariesthathavealreadybeenwrittenforthischip.Usinglibrariesistheeasiestwaytogettherequiredresult.Withlibraries,youcansimplyentertherequireddatatosendwithoutworryingaboutanything.WellsendthedatatothechipthroughtheDINpin.Thedataissentbitbybitbysettingthechipclockforeachbit.TheChipstorestheserialdatainitsregistersuntilalldataisreceived.Aftercompletingthedatasent,wewillsettheCSpinforthechiptotransferallthedatastoredintheregistertotheoutput.Oncethedataisoutputbythechip,thecorrespondingLEDswillbeilluminatedtodisplaytheresult.MAX7912ApplicationsGeneralpurposeSHIFToperationMeasuringInstrumentsDigitalElectronicsServersMemoryunitsNetworkingDigitalsystemsMAX7912DimensionsComponentDatasheetMAX7219LEDDisplayDriverDatasheetOther than that it can also be used as a switch.

push({});Features / Technical Specifications:Package Type: TO-92Transistor Type: N Channel Max Voltage Applied From Drain to Source: 25VMax Drain to Gate Voltage Should Be: 25VMax Reverse Gate to Source Voltage is: 25VMax Continues Gate Current is: 10mAMinimum to Maximum Gate to Source Cuttoff Voltage : 8.The transistor possesses some very good features like very low noise and distortion.

2SK518 (Please note that pin configuration of some replacement transistors mentioned here may different from 2N3819.Does not drive load of more than 10mA through this transistor and the load voltage should be under 25V.