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is equivalent resistance the same as total resistance

时间:2021-06-14 01:00:36 来源:网络整理编辑:Hosonic

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The additional resources of a multithreaded processor can be used for other things than simply recovering lost bandwidth if the multithreading architecture provides for it. A multithreaded processor can thus have capabilities that have no equivalent in a multi-core system based on conventional processors. For example, in a conventional processor, when an external interrupt event needs to be serviced, the processor takes an interrupt exception, where instruction fetch and execution suddenly restarts at an exception vector. Interrupt vector code must save the current program state before invoking the interrupt service code, and must restore the program context before returning from the exception.

The additional resources of a multithreaded processor can be used for other things than simply recovering lost bandwidth if the multithreading architecture provides for it. A multithreaded processor can thus have capabilities that have no equivalent in a multi-core system based on conventional processors. For example, in a conventional processor, when an external interrupt event needs to be serviced, the processor takes an interrupt exception, where instruction fetch and execution suddenly restarts at an exception vector. Interrupt vector code must save the current program state before invoking the interrupt service code, and must restore the program context before returning from the exception.

This jump in EDA growth will go on for a while, forecasts Dataquest's Smith. He sees a significant round of EDA investments starting in 2000 and continuing for three years. We are in the middle of a complete turnover of tool sets,” points out the EDA analyst. Up until six months ago, none of the tools could handle 0.13-micron processes.” Now, he says, All of the physical tools are being replaced, and in the long term, we will see the entire RTL register-transfer level flow being replaced from synthesis on down.”

These changes are part of a major paradigm shift in design automation that are expected to break down the walls that now separate frontend design steps–such as synthesis–from physical placement and interconnect routing in final layout (see story June 1999 >SBN magazine ). In 1999, nearly all of the major EDA houses and a handful of aggressive startups began introducing new software packages designed to eliminate design iterations and speed the development of next-generation ICs.

is equivalent resistance the same as total resistance

Although the outlook is bright for a banner year in 2000, EDA growth will still depend on how quickly designers will be able to embrace the new methodologies and tools, cautions Synopsys' deGeus. There is no such thing as a sure beat in high-tech, and the main challenge will be on the designer side,” he emphasizes. It is one thing to just throw new tools at the problem, but this time a whole new design methodology is coming along with the new generation of tools.”

The optimal vantage point for surveying avast landscape is from atop the highest mountain. Similarly, theoptimal view of an industry's direction comes from its highestoffices. The CEOs of the three largest EDA vendors each offered ushis outlook on EDA's near-term role and how his company plans tomeet the industry's upcoming challenges. Each view represents adistinct approach to common challenges including increasingelectronic-system complexity, decreasing product lifetimes, newdesign methodologies, the need for increasing silicon IP reuse, andthe role played by Internet in future designs. Enjoy theview.

Dr. Aart J. de Geus, Chairman and CEO ofSynopsysWalden C. Rhines, President and CEO, MentorGraphicsRay Bingham, President and CEO, Cadence DesignSystems

is equivalent resistance the same as total resistance

Dr. Aart J. de Geus, Chairman andCEO of Synopsys

is equivalent resistance the same as total resistance

To work well, complex systems-on-a-chip (SoCs) must be designedat a high level of abstraction, with subsystems implemented inhierarchical blocks. System verification will incorporate therequirements of hardware/software co-design and co-verification.Synopsys has a broad range of technologies to address thesesystem-level design issues. With products such as VCS, PrimeTime,PathMill, PowerMill, and Formality, Synopsys already provides itscustomers with a full suite of system-level verification tools. OurEagle-i product rounds out our solutions with cutting-edgehardware/software verification technology. We have a round ofproducts coming out soon that will break new ground in thesystem-level arena.

As a design moves down to physical implementation, timing delaysoccur. Interconnect delays in deep submicron devices now overshadowgate delays as the dominant factor in the timing budget. Therefore,physical implementation of the device, traditionally done via placeand route, is critical to meeting timing budgets. Without newtechnology, numerous time-consuming iterations between synthesisand layout stand in the way of timing closure. Similar problemsoccur with power closure, because the interconnects in deepsubmicron processes are so delicate that they are subject todegradation (electromigration), as well as other problematic sideeffects.

Electrical hazards in the automotive environment The automotive environment itself is the source of many electrical hazards. These hazards, such as electromagnetic interference, electrostatic discharge, and other electrical disturbances are generated by various devices such as the ignition, relay contacts, alternator, fuel injectors, and other accessories. These hazards can occur directly in the wiring harness in case of conducted hazards, or be applied indirectly to the electronic modules by radiation. These generated hazards can impact the electronics in two ways; either on the data lines or on the supply rail wires, depending on the environment.

Propagation of electrical hazards Transients that are generated in the automotive environment can range from severe low level/high energy, to high level/low energy with, in some cases, high dV/dt. These mainly concern ISO 7637-2 and ISO 10605 standards and sometimes the IEC 61000-4-2 as some manufacturers used to rely on this ESD standard before the ISO 10605 came out.

ISO 7637-2 concerns the power rail applications; ISO 10605 (and IEC61000-4-2) concern all electronic modules' accessible parts like potentiometers, LCD screens, knobs, and data line connectors.

Figures 1, 2, and 3 illustrate a simple representation of the form of major EMI and ESD transients in the automotive environment.