时间：2021-06-14 01:20:46 来源：网络整理编辑：SSI Technologies, Inc.
Referring again to Fig.2, the lower graphic curve shows the response at the output of IC2b. It has similar characteristics to the upper curve, but has been given a reduced roll-off at 7.3kHz. This is primarily due to the sounder resonating at 4.6kHz, although not very sharply.
A standard loudspeaker was found to be unsuitable in this application, because the induction between the aerial and speaker would cause feedback when the volume was increased. By using a piezo sounder the output’s electromagnetic field is kept exceptionally low.
In practice, the amplifier output stage’s micro eddy currents are the limiting factor, so the overall gain is set such that soft sounds can just be heard above the background noise, without causing signal feedback.
Power for the circuit can be provided by a 9V PP3 battery. Current consumption is about 2mA maximum. The supply is smoothed by capacitor C1 for the stages up to TR2. For the output stage around IC2, the supply is via diode D3, smoothed by capacitor C16. This is to minimize instability in the rest of the circuit from large electromagnetic pulses.
Construction The Atmospherics Monitor is constructed on stripboard. The component layout and track cut details are shown in Fig.3. Note that some resistors are mounted vertically. Use sockets for both ICs. Assemble in order of ascending component size.
The aerial ferrite rod required should be 200mm long by 10mm diameter. The use of two 100mm rods is permissible, but they must be glued end-to-end whilst held under pressure. The coil former should be 100mm in length, formed from thin cardboard into a tube that can be slid tightly over the rod to span its centre.
Coil winding and assembly The coil requires 500 turns of 40s.w.g. enameled copper wire. This should be wound onto the cardboard former, within a 20mm area, back and forth. It is not necessary to have every coil turn side by side, far more important is that the finished result has an even coil surface, by filling in gaps with turns as an ongoing process. At the last turn, label this wire as the finished over-winding (marked F in Fig.3), for negative 0V connection to the stripboard. The inductance value is roughly 24mH. Insulating tape can be used to secure the coil turns in position, or use glue.
The rod assembly needs supporting onto resilient mounts, but do not use rubber grommets. Instead, use either foam or other soft but supporting material, to ensure the rod and coil are unable to make direct intermittent contact within the casing area.
Care should be taken regarding the aerial’s input position in relation to the audio output. The aerial rod assembly needs to be mounted close to the input connection end of the stripboard, centered in-line with the coil.
For the complete article, which describes the circuitry involved with the start/stop system, infotainment power electronics protection, and how the multiphase boost converter works onr hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles, click here , courtesy of Automotive Designline Europe.
Part 2 of this feature covers applications at higher, more practical speeds and manufacturability.
Most of the electric cars currently available are using brushless permanent magnet (PM) motors. These motors have very good characteristics, but their control circuitry consumes a lot of power, that may require liquid cooling. This wasted energy is taken from the energy stored in the battery, reducing the range of the car.
For hybrid vehicles using series power train technology (the combustion engine drives an electrical generator charging the battery), this waste of energy translates into a reduction of the miles covered per gallon of gas.
This series describes the concept of a brushless DC motor with an electronic gearbox,” requiring an almost lossless control circuitry. This translates into improved range, which is also increased by a nearly 100% regenerative braking energy recovery, as well as reduced manufacturing cost and better reliability.
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