Experimental results obtained using two PSFB systems (600W and 360W) are presented. A constant high system-efficiency above 10% rated load, novel PCMC waveform generation, and simple system implementation are the highlights of this implementation.

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B72214S2271K301_Datasheet PDF

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Experimental results obtained using two PSFB systems (600W and 360W) are presented. A constant high system-efficiency above 10% rated load, novel PCMC waveform generation, and simple system implementation are the highlights of this implementation.

Experimental results obtained using two PSFB systems (600W and 360W) are presented. A constant high system-efficiency above 10% rated load, novel PCMC waveform generation, and simple system implementation are the highlights of this implementation.

References [1] Onyx: A Prototype Phase Change Memory Storage Array, by Ameen Akel, Adrian M Caulfield et al. Proc Hot Storage Conference, 2011. [2]EEtimes http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4216641/San-Diego-Moneta-PCM-DAC  [3] Drift-Tolerant Multilevel Phase-Change Memory, by  N.Papandreou, et al (IBM) [4] A Multi-Level-Cell Bipolar-Selected Phase Change Memory, Ferdinando Bedeschi, et al Proc ISSCC 2008 [5] High Performance PRAM cell Scalable to sub 20nm technology…,I.S Kim et al, Proc VLSI 2010. [6]Crystallization properties of ultrathin phase change films, Simone Raoux et al, Jounal of Applied Physics, 2008, 103 [7]Synthesis and size-dependant crystallization of colloidal GeTe nano-particles, M, Caldwell, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2008 [8]Minimum voltage for threshold switching in nano-scale phase change memory, D Yu et al NanoLetters, 2008, Vol 8 no 10, 3429-3433. [9] http://www.eetimes.com/design/memory-design/4206311/PCM-scalability-Myth-or-realistic-device-projection [10] http://www.eetimes.com/design/memory-design/4218114/PCM-Progress-Report-No-4–Brains

In 2011, IDTechEx research finds that the amount of money spent on energy harvesters will be USD0.7Bn, with several hundred developers involved throughout the value chain. Energy harvesting is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electricity for small autonomous devices, such as satellites, laptops and nodes in sensor networks making them self-sufficient. Energy harvesting applications reach from vehicles to the smart grid.

B72214S2271K301_Datasheet PDF

The majority of the value this year is in consumer electronic applications, where energy harvesters have been used for some time. In 2011, 1.6 million energy harvesters will be used in wireless sensors, resulting in $13.75 million being spent on those harvesters. The full breakdown is shown below, the figures represent millions of US dollars.

The Energy Harvesting Market in 2011 $0.7Bn. Source: IDTechEx report Energy Harvesting & Storage for Electronic Devices 2011-2021

B72214S2271K301_Datasheet PDF

Energy harvesting by technology type This year, most of the harvesters used in the above market segments are solar cells followed by electrodynamos, two relatively mature energy harvesting technologies. However, many new technologies are now taking some market share enabling power in areas not possible before. This includes thermoelectrics – generating power from heat – where organisations such as the Department of Energy in the US are working with BMW and GM to turn heat waste from engines and exhaust into power for the vehicle's electrical systems.

NASA use thermoelectrics to power Mars rovers where they work without light, unlike solar cells. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are also of great interest due to their small form factor and high efficiency. In 2021, these four energy harvester types will have near similar market share for industrial sensing applications. However, even by then solar will continue to dominate for consumer applications.

B72214S2271K301_Datasheet PDF

Challenges in the value chain

A number of questions about adopting public clouds have to do with what might happen when an external cloud becomes business-critical for the organization. One of these questions involves concern over cloud lock-in.

As George Harrison wrote in the song Stuck Inside a Cloud : Talking to myself, Crying out loud, Only I can hear me, I'm stuck inside a cloud.”C,4 The concern here is that once you become dependent on the services of a cloud provider, you may find it extremely difficult to switch providers due to any number of technical reasons.

In one lock-in example, a company may subscribe to a specific public CSP service as their customer relationship management tool. This service may consequently end up being used to house all of the company's data relating to their customers. The company may invest significant effort in customizing rules or reporting routines in their use of this service. The service may also become the primary reporting engine that provides management insight to the health of the business.

If the service entails proprietary formats or APIs, then the service subscriber may very well not own anything other than the data. If the company decides to discontinue the service, then the organization may retain no value for any effort they performed in tailoring the service for their needs. If the data formats are proprietary, the company could conceivably face serious challenges when migrating their data to a replacement system or service.

Metadata Further questions in this lock-in scenario might include what happens to a customer's data when they terminate their service? Who else might be able to access it? This is further complicated by the fact that if the organization used the cloud service over a considerable length of time, then it is almost guaranteed that there is a tremendous amount of data that was developed by simply using the cloud—sometimes referred to as cloud metadata.

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