Three point seven-five inches wide. Two point five-o inches high. Fourpoint five-o inches deep. These are the physical dimensions in inchesof the now obsolete helicopter cockpit audio communications system thatwe at Orchid Technologies recently redesigned. Within the given volume,the original audio communications system provided intercom servicesbetween two flight personnel and ground. Three way and two way onlyaudio communications with analog headsets was supported. Manuallyoperated controls provided in flight personnel with system status andmessage indicators. The original communications system received powerand audio feeds through hard-wired point-to-point connections insidethe instrument manifold. Field service and preventative maintenance(PM) was a constant and costly challenge. In flight failure rates weredisturbingly high. When critical electronic components could no longerbe reliably procured, our client called us to redesign the entiresub-assembly.

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2108-440-SS-20_Datasheet PDF

时间:2021-06-14 00:58:24 来源:网络整理编辑:Knowles

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Three point seven-five inches wide. Two point five-o inches high. Fourpoint five-o inches deep. These are the physical dimensions in inchesof the now obsolete helicopter cockpit audio communications system thatwe at Orchid Technologies recently redesigned. Within the given volume,the original audio communications system provided intercom servicesbetween two flight personnel and ground. Three way and two way onlyaudio communications with analog headsets was supported. Manuallyoperated controls provided in flight personnel with system status andmessage indicators. The original communications system received powerand audio feeds through hard-wired point-to-point connections insidethe instrument manifold. Field service and preventative maintenance(PM) was a constant and costly challenge. In flight failure rates weredisturbingly high. When critical electronic components could no longerbe reliably procured, our client called us to redesign the entiresub-assembly.

Three point seven-five inches wide. Two point five-o inches high. Fourpoint five-o inches deep. These are the physical dimensions in inchesof the now obsolete helicopter cockpit audio communications system thatwe at Orchid Technologies recently redesigned. Within the given volume,the original audio communications system provided intercom servicesbetween two flight personnel and ground. Three way and two way onlyaudio communications with analog headsets was supported. Manuallyoperated controls provided in flight personnel with system status andmessage indicators. The original communications system received powerand audio feeds through hard-wired point-to-point connections insidethe instrument manifold. Field service and preventative maintenance(PM) was a constant and costly challenge. In flight failure rates weredisturbingly high. When critical electronic components could no longerbe reliably procured, our client called us to redesign the entiresub-assembly.

Electric motor power efficiency has taken center stage. Individuals, corporations, and governments are increasingly interested in saving power, now that technology can make it possible and economy demands it. Advances in motor control algorithms and cost-effective electronic components for implementing motor drives are creating a revolution in virtually every electric motor market. Control of the power factor in an efficient manner also means less lost energy, both in the motor and drive electronics, and in the power grids supplying the electricity to the homes, offices, and factories where the motors are used.

The potential energy savings are staggering. Over 40 million electric motors are used in the United States alone in manufacturing operations. Electric motors account for 65-70% of industrial electrical energy consumption and about 57% of all electrical consumption worldwide. Saving even a few percent of the world's estimated 16,000-plus terawatt-hours (TWh) annual consumption of electricity amounts to several hundreds of trillions of watt-hours per year. Currently, the average motor in use today has an efficiency of 88% in converting electrical into mechanical energy. Figures on the order of 96% conversion efficiency are technically feasible for larger motors. For more information on motor-control technology, check out the article Stepping Motor Fundamentals.”

2108-440-SS-20_Datasheet PDF

For comparison, the electrical generation capacity of photovoltaic solar cells in all of Europe, where both Germany and Spain currently lead the U.S. in installed base, is projected to be only 15 TWh/yr. in 2010. In the UK alone, with an annual total electrical consumption of approximately 350 TWh, the Institute of Engineering and Technology estimated that 5 TWh could be saved annually through the use of more efficient electric motors. Furthermore, many motors aren't used in an efficient manner. For example, the motor may be oversized for the job at hand, or much of its mechanical output power may be wasted, meaning that additional savings may come from how the motor is used, on top of the savings from the motor itself. In 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy speculated on savings of 5 TWh/yr. by 2000, and a 100 TWh/yr. savings potential by 2010, considering both motor and related system-level savings.

The potential is there to make significant advances in the next few years as older motors and drives are replaced by newer more efficient ones. Because of the cost savings in electricity, many industries are voluntarily accelerating the turn-over of their installed motor base, even replacing motors before they wear out. This is because the payback for the newer, more efficient motors and drives can be realized in less than a year and usually less than two years. Great strides are already being made. In the UK, for instance, sales of the least efficient motors, grade Eff3, have dropped from 68% to 8% between 1997 and 2004. During the same period, sales of the most efficient grade (Eff1) have increased from 2% to 7%, and further jumped to 17% in 2006, with the middle grade (Eff2) making up the balance of sales.

Regulatory Influences on Motor Efficiency Governments around the world are providing regulatory pressure to use more efficient motors. Starting with the Environmental Protection Act of 1992, which mandated motor efficiency standards and took effect in 1997, the U.S. government has been steadily increasing regulations. There are other voluntary incentives as well, such as National Electrical Manufacturers Association's (NEMA) Premium efficiency labeling standard (2001). Australia implemented standards on motors ranging from 0.73 to 185 kW in 2001 and tightened efficiency requirements in 2006. Very recently (March 2009), the European Union passed mandatory Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS), which will be phased in from 2011 to 2017. Brazil (2002) and China (starting in 2010) also have current or planned mandatory standards. Figure 1 shows a comparison of efficiency requirements for various-sized motors in several jurisdictions, including the voluntary NEMA and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) standards, versus the wide range of efficiencies of available motors.

2108-440-SS-20_Datasheet PDF

Electric motor savings are achieved in several ways. The first is in the motor design itself, through the use of better materials, design, and construction. Another is by optimizing the mechanical angle between the various rotating magnetic fields inside the motor. This is done using the newer family of motor control algorithms, generally referred to together as space vector control, flux vector control, or field-oriented control. By keeping the magnetic fields of the rotor and stator oriented with the optimal angles between them under various speed and torque conditions (typically near 90 degrees), the motor can always operate at peak efficiency.

2108-440-SS-20_Datasheet PDF

As a side benefit, other characteristics can also be optimized, such as fast and stable dynamic response to load changes, precise control of speed or torque, soft starting and braking, prevention of stalling at low speeds, high starting torques, and fault detection; often without sacrificing much in the way of overall energy efficiency. Some of these features were once obtainable only from a more expensive motor type, but can be achieved with the now ubiquitous, low-cost, and reliable ac induction motor, which comprises 90% of U.S. motor sales. One of the most significant advantages of the newer control algorithms is efficient variable speed operation.

A large opportunity for system-level energy savings comes from using variable-speed motor drives. A well-designed pump or fan motor running at half speed consumes only one-eighth the energy compared to running at full speed. Many older pump and fan installations used fixed-speed motors connected directly to the power mains, and controlled the liquid or air flow using throttling valves or air dampers. The valves or dampers create a back pressure, reducing the flow, but at the expense of efficiency. This is probably how the HVAC forced-air system works in your office building; dampers control the airflow into each workspace while the central fan, which is sized for peak requirements, runs at full speed all the time—even if the combined airflow requirements of the building are currently very low. Replacing these motors with variable speed drives and eliminating or controlling the dampers more intelligently can save up to two-thirds their overall energy consumption.

It seems difficult to believe there are many engineers active in the embedded electronics market who aren't familiar with at least the concept of FPGAs, rendering the idea of an untapped market as unlikely. In this respect, appearances may not be deceiving, as the untapped markets now in the crosshairs of the Xilinx marketing machine aren't necessarily embedded engineers at all.

Before exploring that further, it should be pointed out that the latest version of Xilinx' design suite, ISE 11.1, is aligned with the company's current strategy to deliver domain specific solutions. This infers that there are many more domains than simply telecommunications to address.

While this is true, the size of the opportunity within those domains is also much lower, in terms of volumes. Supporting many domains which may return fewer volume shipments can be a very effective way of spending a lot of money without a commensurately large return. To date, Xilinx claims it has been less than efficient in the way it serves customers' needs for reference designs; effectively, creating a new design for each customer.

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